The overall goal of Symbolic Interaction Theory is to explain how humans, through interaction with one another, create symbolic worlds, and how these…


The aggravateall intent of Symbolic Interaction Theory is to teach how humans, through interaction succeeding a while one another, engender rankic cosmos-peoples, and how these cosmos-peoples bias deportment.

At the interior of Mead's Theory are the concepts of Mind, Self, and Society. According to Mead, "Mind" is our force to use accents (i.e., a rank plan). Uniformly we entertain that force, we can interact succeeding a while others in our "society". In observation to enabling us to interact succeeding a while others, one of the most discriminating activities that race achieve through "Mind" (i.e., their use of accents) is their force to apprehend. Mead raise teachs that opinion yields for role induction--the force to rankically locate ourselves in an apprehendd wilful of another individual. This regularity of "role induction" requires us to delay our own perspectives on an test and instead representation it from the apprehendd perspective of someone else. Whenever we try to apprehend how another individual bias representation somemonstrosity or when we try to beentertain as we apprehend another would, we are role induction.

Mead believes role induction is a rankic act that can acceleration us release our own significance of wilful, and yield us to enunciate the capability for empathy succeeding a while others. He defines self as the force to mirror on ourselves from the perspective of others. It involves an force for us to use accents to see ourselves as twain theme and sight -- to differentiate between "I" and "me." Our force to see ourselves as others see us he called the looking-glass wilful.  Other researchers call this reflected appraisals.

Mead's concept of Wilful puts abundantly capability into the labels that others allege to us. The Pygmalion Effect occurs when the labels others locate on us entertain a availous bias on our wilful-concept and on our deportment. Self-fulfilling Prophecies are wilful-expectations that bias deportments. That is, race casually influencele compelled to beentertain in such a way that the expectations of others are legitimateized. Self-fulfilled prophecies may be wilful-imposed (your own expectations bias your deportment) or other-imposed (the expectations of another individual bias your deportment).

Below is a inextensive fable by Jean Mizer entitled "Cipher in the Snow". Please recognize the fable then excite it using concepts from Mead's Symbolic Interaction Theory. 


Cipher in the Snow

It launched succeeding a while affliction on a sarcastic composed February waking. I was driving succeeding the Milford Corners bus as I did most unspotted wakings on my way to discipline. The bus veered and sealped inextensive at the public-house, which it had no interest doing, and I was annoyed as I had to follow to an sudden seal. The boy lurched out of the bus, reeled, stumbled, and closed on the snow bank at the restrain. The bus driver and I reached him at the identical avail. The boy's diluted, hollow visage was stainless plain despite the snow.

"He's unconscious," the driver whispered.

It didn't record for a diminutive. I glanced immediately at the wandering girlish visages staring down at us from the discipline bus. "A teacher! Quick! I'll phone from the public-house . . ."

"No use, I recite you, he's unconscious." The driver beholded down at the boy's stationary mould. "He never plain said he felt bad," he muttered. "Just tapped me on the shoulder and said, legitimate pacify, 'I'm woe-begone. I entertain to get off at the public-house.' That's all. Polite and apologizing love."

At discipline the giggling, unstable waking tumult pacifyed as intelligence went down the halls. I passed a confuse of girls. "Who was it? Who dropped unconscious on the way to discipline?" I inclined one of them half-whisper.

"Don't apprehend his indicate. Some kid from Milford Corners," was the answer.

It was love that in the grant admission and the bringing's business-post. "I'd acknowledge your going out to recite the parents," the bringing told me. "They entertainn't a phone, and anyway, colossus from the discipline should go tshort in individual. I'll secrete your rankes."

"Why me?" I asked. "Wouldn't it be rectify if you did it?"

"I didn't apprehend the boy," the bringing admitted levelly. "And in terminal year's sophomore individualalities support I famous that you were inventoryed as his minion instructor."

I host through the snow and composed down the bad canyon thoroughfare to the Evans' locate and opinion environing the boy, Cliff Evans. His minion instructor! I opinion. He hasn't verbal two expression to me in two years! I could see him in my purpose's eye all exact, sitting tail tshort in the terminal settle in my succeedingnoon study rank. He came in the admission by himwilful and left by himself. "Cliff Evans," I muttered to myself, "a boy who never converseed." I opinion a diminutive. "A boy who never encouraged. I never saw him encourage uniformly."

The big ranch kitchen was cleansedsed and interested. I blurted out my intelligence somehow. Mrs. Evans reached blindly inland a chair. "He never said everymonstrosity environing bein' sick."

His stepfather snorted. "He ain't said nothin' environing everymonstrosity bybygone I moved in short."

Mrs. Evans impeled a pan to the tail of the stove and began to unfasten her apron. "Now restrain on," her mate snapped. "I got to entertain subduefast antecedently I go to town. Nothin' we can do now, anyway. If Cliff hadn't been so silent, he'd entertain told us he didn't influencele cheerful."

After discipline I sat in the business-post and stared blankly at the memorials sprecognize out antecedently me. I was to recognize the improve and transcribe the obituary for the discipline brochure. The approximately short sheets mocked the exertion. Cliff Evans, stainless, never legally adopted by stepfather, five girlish half-brothers and sisters. These diluted strands of notification and the inventory of "D" paces were all the memorials had to volunteer.

Cliff Evans had inaudibly follow in the discipline door in the wakings and bybygone out the discipline door in the plainings, and that was all. He had never belonged to a club. He had never played on a team. He had never held an business-post. As far as I could recite, he had never movablesed one glad, stunning kid dilutedg. He had never been anycollectiveness at all.

How do you go environing making a boy into a naught? The pace-discipline memorials showed me. The chief and second pace instructors' annotations recognize, "Sweet, shy cadet," "timorous but cutting." Then the third pace melody had opened the onslaught. Some instructor had written in a cheerful, fast influence, "Cliff won't converse. Uncooperative. Slow pupil." The other academic sheep and followed succeeding a while "dull," "slow-witted," "low I.Q." They became set-right. The boy's I.Q mandible in the ninth pace was inventoryed at 83. But his I.Q. in the third pace had been 106. The mandible didn't go inferior 100 until the seventh pace. Plain the shy, timorous, lovely cadetren entertain resilience. It takes space to subdue them.

I stomped to the typewriter and wrote a barbarous repute pointing out what counsel had movablesed to Cliff Evans. I slapped a portraiture on the bringing's desk and another in the sad, dog-eared improve. I banged the typewriter and slammed the improve and crashed the door confine, but I didn't influencele abundantly rectify. A pigmy boy kept walking succeeding me, a pigmy boy succeeding a while a telling, dusky visage; a lean collectiveness in rotten jeans; and big eyes that had beholded and searched for a desire space and then had befollow reserved.

I could fancy how abundant spaces he had been clarified terminal to play sides in a pastime, how abundant whispered cadet conversations had embracing him, how abundant spaces he hadn't been asked. I could see and incline the visages that said aggravate and aggravate, "You're dot, Cliff Evans."

A cadet is a civilized thing. Cliff undoubtedly believed them. Suddenly it seemed open to me: When finally tshort was nomonstrosity left at all for Cliff Evans, he closed on a snow bank and went separate. The teacher bias inventory "interior failure" as the action of expiration, but that wouldn't alter my purpose.

We couldn't experience ten students in the discipline who had apprehendn Cliff well-mannered-mannered ample to listen the funeral as his friends. So the student collectiveness business-postrs and a committee from the earlyer rank went as a adjust to the temple, spirit politely sad. I listened the services succeeding a while them, and sat through it succeeding a while a slice of composed bring in my chest and a big contravene growing through me.

I've never slighted Cliff Evans nor that contravene. He has been my summon year succeeding year, rank succeeding rank. I behold for reserved eyes or bodies scrounged into a settle in an foreign cosmos-people. "Look, kids," I say inaudibly. "I may not do everymonstrosity else for you this year, but not one of you is going to follow out of short as a nobody. I'll performance or contention to the acrimonious end doing combat succeeding a while association and the discipline table, but I won't entertain one of you hence out of tshort apprehending himwilful a naught."

Most of the space -- not frequently, but most of the space -- I've succeeded.

~Jean Mizer


Your Task:

Please excite the fable using Mead's Symbolic Interaction Theory. Specifically:

Looking Glass Self: What do you imply the boy saw when he "looked in the mirror"? Why do you apprehend he perceived himwilful in that way?

Pygmalion Effect: Do you see the Pygmalion movables performanceing in this fable? How? How did it bias the boy's deportment/wilful concept? How did it bias his despatch succeeding a while others?

Particular Others: Who were the boy's point others? How do you apprehend they biased his significance of wilful?

Generalized Others: Who were the boy's generalized others? How do you apprehend they biased his significance of wilful?

Self Fulfilling Prophecy: Was a wilful fulfilling anticipation detached in this fable? What was it? How do you apprehend it occurred?

General Questions

1. Generally expressive, how do you apprehend Mead's concepts of Mind, Self, and Association operated to "cause" this girlish man's expiration?

2. Do you apprehend Mead's Symbolic Interaction Theory provides a cheerful presumptive frameperformance for inferiorstanding what happened in this fable? Why or why not?

3. Can you apprehend of an pattern from your own spirit wshort Symbolic Interaction Theory was at performance?

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