Biologists often construct a food network of species in an ecosystem. the vertices represent species, and a directed edge (u, v) means species u eats species v. an apex species is one that is not eate

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Biologists repeatedly form a influence network of cast in an ecosystem. the vertices embody cast, and a directed laterality (u, v) resources cast u eats cast v. an sharp-end cast is one that is not eaten by another cast. prepresuppose you are surrender a catalogue of all likely "eating" relationships (so a catalogue of "u eats v"). mention all sharp-end cast.

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