Learning Objectives Genetics:
What is the difference between Genotype and Phenotype?
What is the difference between Heterozygous and Homozygous inheritance?
Define the following terms: allele, incomplete dominance, codominance, pleiotropy, epistasis. What are some examples of each?
What is meant by polygenic inheritance?
What roles can the environment play in the phenotypic expression of a genotype? Give an example of a disease that is affected both by genetics and environmental factors and explain how each affects the disease phenotype.
Describe how a pedigree can be used to determine trait inheritance
Describe how Sex-linked inheritance works
Explain how linked genes are inherited
What does the term “genetic recombination” mean?
What is the difference between Dominant and Recessive inherited disorders?
Why are males more vulnerable to Sex-linked Recessive disorders?
Learning Objectives Replication, Transcription, Translation
Name the three components of a DNA nucleotide. Explain how the DNA double helix is formed including the Base Pairing rules and the Antiparallel structure.
Where does the energy required for DNA synthesis (adding bases to the new daughter strand) come from?
How many bonds, and of what type, are found between G and C nucleotides? Between A and T nucleotides? Which bases are purine? Which are pyrimidines?
Describe the roles of the following enzymes in DNA replication: DNA polymerase, Helicase, Ligase, Primase.
What are the differences between how the leading and lagging strands are copied in DNA replication?
What enzyme is involved in Transcription?
What forms of RNA are transcribed from DNA?
Explain what happens in mRNA processing to go from pre-mRNA to mRNA that can be exported from the nucleus.
Describe what happens at each stage of transcription (initiation, elongation, termination).
What is a codon?
Which amino acid is the first to be coded when synthesizing a protein?
What are the roles of mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA in Translation?
What are the purposes of the E-site, the P-site and the A-site of a ribosome?
Describe what happens at each stage of translation (initiation, elongation, termination).
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