Welding fumes are a common occupational exposure. Several different welding fumes can cause similar adverse health effects. Personal sampling of a welding operation at a manufacturing facility produce 1

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* **** Oxide can ****** **** ******** in* Exposure to **** ***** *** cause ******** **** ************ ** * ******** ******* with symptoms ** ******** taste ***** ***** headache fever *** ****** ***** ************** *** ***** *** symptoms *** ** delayed ********** ***** ***** ******** *** ******* last *** a *** ****** Zinc ***** *** be ******** **** ******* ********************************* ***** ** * ***** or yellowish-white odorless *********** ** **** ** pigments ****** paints ******** ***************** *** *************** **** Oxide ***** *** ********* odorless ********* ***** are ****** when **** ** ********** *** ****** to **** ************ ***** ** ** ****************** *** smelting)2 **** ***** *** ****** **** ******** *** ******** ** **** ***** fumes *** cause ***** ********* **** ** * flu-like illness **** symptoms ** metallictaste ***** *** ****** aches chest ********* *** ****** ********* or ******** ******* *** ******** *** *********** ********* **** staining* ******** ******** to **** ***** **** or dust *** ******************* (Siderosis) with ***** ********* ******** *** ******* ** ***** ****** Iron Oxide as ****** Oxide (Fe2O3) ** *** combustibleunless ****** powdered ******* ******* Oxide (FeO) *********** ********* *** ******** and may ******************* ** airIDENTIFICATIONIron ***** ** a ***** ******* or * ************* ****** ** isused ** polishing ********* ******** *** ********** ********* fume ** ******** **** ********* containing **** ********* ** ** arc ******* *** number ** **** refers ********* Oxide ***** **** ***** ******* ** **** SpongeFerrous ***** ***** may ** formed in Oxygen-limitedatmospheres in **** *** *** from **** gas ************ ********* ******* or Iron ****** ** ******** **** **** *** ******** ***** *** melting ***** ** Iron **** ***************** **** ****** ******* ***** ******** ******** is ********* ** the ******** **** ******** ***** (breathing ****** drinking ** skin ******** other chemical ********* *** *** *********** status family ****** **** style and ***** of ****** ******* ******** ** ******** ** *** *** ** levels of * ***** *** ********** ********** ** *** **** **** and lungs ********* ********** of ******** *** ********** ************** altered ****************** ******* **** diarrhea ******** *** ******* ****** results ***** **** ********* ** ********** animals ******** ***** **** investigations ** *** effect of antimony in ****** ****** ***** ******** ******* ******** ******* no **** Antimony ******** exposure ** *********** ** smelters Mining *** ******** *** ***** working ********* and brazing *** **** ********** The respiratory tract in ****** ** * major ****** ** ********** exposure ** chromium ********* ******** ********* workers ******* ******* ** ************ ********* *** ******* ****** *** ***** signs ** *********** distress Five *********** *** *** * ******* ** ******* dermatitis ** chromium **** ******* *** a ********* ** ** ******* containing **** ** chromium(VI)/mL ** potassium ********** A *** ******** ** *** ****** ********** ****** of *** lungs *** ******** *** *** *********** ** ******** ** the **** nasopharyngeal pruritus ***** blocking ******** *** ******** (Olaguibel *** ******* ************ cough and ******** **** ******** in *** ***** ** ***** the subjects ******* “massive ******** of ************ ******** ****** ********* ** *** nasal ****** without ***** ****** *********** *** found ** both ******** **** ******** examination (Meyers ***** ** * ****** ******* ***** where poor exhaust ******** ** *********** **** concentrations of chromium trioxide ***** ******* *********** ******** of ******** ********** ******* ********* and a ******* ********* **** they **** ******* **** the ******** tanks All **** ** the ******** had ***** ***** *** ********* ********* *** nasal ****** ********** ** *********** after ***** months ** ******** ********** ***** ****** ********* ** * man *** *** **** **** until * **** after ********* ********** ** ** ************* **** challenged **** an inhalation ******** ** a sample ** chromium(III) sulfate ** ********* ******** ******** *** ********* forced ********** ****** ** **** *** * ****** ********* ******** ** ****** sulfate ****** ** ** ***** **** **************** ****** may ***** ** **** sensitized *********** ******* ** elevated ************** of ******** in air *** the number ** ********** *********** is *** *** *** ****** ** *********** *********** ********* ** *** ******** ******** is ***************** ** chronic-duration ************ ******** ** ************ *** cause ** ********* risk of ***** due to noncancer *********** disease ** * retrospective ********* ***** of **** **** *** **** female workers ******** *** ** ***** * months ** a ****** ******* *** ***** engineering plant in *** ****** ******* ******* 1946 *** **** * ************* significant ****** ** ***** **** diseases of *** *********** ****** *********** **** ******** for men ****************** ************ ******** ********* ratio ********* p<005) *** *** and women combined *********** ******* p<005) but not *** ***** alone ******** was ****** ** ******** ******** but ******** ************** **** *** ********* ***** The contribution ** ****** ******** to the ******* was ***** to be *********** ***** data ** ******* ****** **** not ********* ******** et ** 1987) Similarly a **** *** *** ***** *** ********* *********** ******* ***** **** **** ******** ******* *** **** employed *** at ***** * ****** ** three ******** plants ** *** ****** ****** during *** ***** *********** and ******** *** ** ***** ************ ******** ******* 1966) *** ********* **** ** ***** from *********** ******* ********** **** ******** ** employment ** ******** ********** *** ** *********** on exposure ****** ******* ****** ** exposure ** ***** ********* *** ******** *** ****** ** the *********** diseases *** not ******* ********* ** ****** ** ***** ******* ******** ********** ******* ** *** ****** Kingdom who **** ***** ******** ****** **** *** a **** risk of ***** **** ******* *********** airways ******* ************ ******* ********* ******* et ** 1991) Exposure ************** were not ***** *** ******** smoking data **** *** availableOccupational exposure ** ************ ** chromium ******** ** *** ************** ******** ****** ***** respiratory ******** * **** history ** **** men ** * ****** ******* ******** ******** seven cases ** ***** ****** ********** ***** *** ******** ******** ********** ***** ******* and soreness *** ********* *** *** were ******* from ** to ** ****** to chromium ******** ** concentrations ranging **** 009 ** *** ** *************** (Kleinfeld *** ***** 1965) ************** ******* in Sao Paulo ****** exposed to chromium ******** ****** while working **** *** chromium ******** ********* had frequent ********** ** ******** expectoration ***** irritation sneezing ********** *** ********** *** developed ***** ****** ********** *** perforation *** ******* *** been ******** *** <1 **** *** most ** *** workers *** **** ******* ** ************** ****** ** *************** ****** ***** Nose *** ****** irritation rhinorrhea *** ********** **** ******** at ****** ********* ** chrome platers in ********* **** in ******** **** *** *** ************* ******* ** ******* *********** exposed ** chromium(VI) compounds **** ******** nasal septum *********** and ***** *********** effects ******* ** ** electroplating ******** ******* ** ************* ** *************** ** ******** trioxide *** ** average of *** ****** ********** of ********* sneezing rhinorrhea *** epistaxis **** ** *** ******* *** *********** and/or perforations ** the ***** ****** (Cohen ** ** ***** * study ***** **** ************** ***** were ********* by *** ****** platers and **** controls ***** * ************* significant increase ** the ********* of ******* rhinitis ******** **** ********** and nasal ulcers *** ************ ** ******* ******* ** ************ ** the ****** plating ******** ** ** ****** ******** ** the ******* population ****** ****** *** ******* had **** exposed to ************ ** *** *** ** dust *** *** ****** were generally <003 ** chromium(VI)/m3 and dust levels **** ********* ******* ** *** ** ** ************** *** exposure ****** ** ***** ******* ***** ******** ***** *** be determined A NIOSH Health ****** ********** ** ** ************** ******** in *** ****** ****** ******** ***** septum *********** ** * ** ** ******* ******** *** ** ******* of ** years *** ******* to **** ************** ** **** ** *************** Many of *** ******* had ********* ******** and nasal ********** (Lucas and ********** 1975) ***** ******* ******* ******* from ********** to *********** of the ****** were ***** among ** ********* ** ***** chromium ************** ********** ** ************** ***** the **** ***** in the ********* **** ***** *** ******* baths *** **** mg *************** ********* et ** ***** The incidence ** ********* ***** *********** *** nose ******** ** nasal obstruction *** ***** crusting was significantly increased ** workers ******** ** ******** ******* ********* (mean ********** duration ** ** ****** in An-San Korea compared ** ** ********* ******* ***** ********* ** ** ***** *** ************** ** chromium(VI) ****** from **** ** 003 ** *************** *** ** ************* ranged **** 0005 ** 006 ** chromium(III)/m3 Increased ********** of ***** ****** perforation nasal septum ulcer and ***** *********** **** ******** ** workers ** ******** ************** ********** exposed *** * mean ******** of 61 years ** ******** to workers ** **** ************** ********** **** ** ** 1997a) *** ******** ************** ******* *** *** *** *** ***** greater ******* ********** ***** ****** ****** or ***** ************ ************ **** the **** ******* A *********** ************ ******* duration ** ******** *** *** **** of ***** ****** ****** *** **** ****** *** ******** electroplating ******* **** * **** ******** of ***** ***** had * **** *** times ****** than ***** **** * **** duration of <2 ***** ******** *** *** ************* affect *** **** of nasal *********** ************* significant decreases in vital capacity ****** ***** capacity (FVC) and ****** ********** ****** ** * second ****** **** **** ******** in *** ******** ******* *********** ** lung function **** **** ******** ** * ***** of ** workers at ** ******** ************** facilities ****** ** al ***** ************* *********** decreases ** forced ********** ****** ** * ****** and forced ********** flow were ********* ***** ******** *** *** altered Lower lung ******** values **** ***** ***** workers **** **** ******* chromium ****** (exposure ****** were *** ********* *** it *** determined that cigarette ******* was not * *********** variableA ***** of *********** ******* **** ******** *** changes ** *** ***** ****** ** 43 ****** plating ******* ** ****** ******* ** ************ as ******** ******** *** ******** ***** ********** years) ******** *********** ******* ** occupational ******** levels ** **** ** chromium(VI)/m3 ***** *** symptoms ** adverse ***** effects were observed and ******** ** mean ******** levels of 0002–02 ** chromium(VI)/m3 ******* noted ** ≤0002 ** chromium(VI)/m3included a smeary *** ****** ****** mucosa *** ********* mucosa ***** ******* ********** *** ****** *********** ******** in *********** ******* at **** ****** ** 002–0046 ** **************** nasal ******* atrophy *** ********** occurred ** individuals ******* ** **** ****** ** 00025–0011 mg **************** *** ** significant nasal ******* **** observed ** *********** ******* ** **** levels ** ************ ** chromium(VI)/m3 Workers ******* to mean ************** of 0002–002 mg chromium(VI)/m3 *** ****** transient ********* ** *** ****** ******* ****** ** 1 second (FEV1) and ****** ************** flow during *** ******* ******* ******* ** ******** ** *************** ****** ** ******* ** lung function ********* *** ************ ***** *** ************** ** ***** minor **** ******** ******* **** ******** *********** ** chromium(VI)/m3) and those ** ***** ** changes were ******** ********* mg **************** *** ******* to ***** *** ***** ******* ************* ** **************** *** ******* ******** ** **** ***** *** not **** resulted **** ******** ****** actually ******** but *** **** ******** **** earlier ******** ***** unknown ********** *********** **** ******** ******* ********* ********* in transfer ** chromium(VI) ** ****** plating solutions **** the ***** to *** **** ***** contribute ** *** *********** ** ***** ********** and *********** (Cohen ** ** ***** Lucas and ********** ***** perhaps ******* ** an *************** ** airborne levels of ************ ********* to ***** these ******* Despite ***** ************** the ***** by ******** *** ************ ****** ** ****** ******* ** ********* *********************** ** ************ ********* **** ***** *********** ***** *** respiratory effects The ***** ** **** ** *************** for *********** ******* ** humans *** used ** ********* ** inhalation ***** ********* ** *************** *** ********************* exposure to ************ ** chromium ******** mists *** ***** dissolved ********** ******** ******** or ***************** ******** ** ************ ****** ************* ** ***** **************** industries has **** been ********** **** *********** ******* ***** ********** ******* ******** *** ********** ********** ********* ***** ******* and ******** ************* ********** *** ******** ******

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