Which of the following are the sites within the human body where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged? A. Alveoli B. Arteries C. Synapses D. Venules 2. Which of the following describes the most imp

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Which of the following are the sites within the human body where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged? A. Alveoli B. Arteries C. Synapses D. Venules 2. Which of the following describes the most important reason for repeating an experimental investigation? A. To verify the validity of the original findings B. To expand upon the original investigation C. To manipulate the independent variable D. To attempt to disprove the hypothesis 3. Lithium has an atomic number of 3 and a mass number of 7. Which of the following is the number of protons in a lithium atom? A.3 B. 4 C. 7 D. 12 4. Which of the following molecules contains the fewest covalent bonds? A. Water molecule (Hp) B. Ammonia molecule (NH3) C. Methane molecule (CH4) D. Chlorine molecule (CI2) 5. When salt (NaCI) is added to water, it disassociates into Na• and Cl-ions. Which of the following types of chemical bond is present in a salt molecule? A. Covalent bond B. Ionic bond C. Hydrogen bond D. Disulfide bond 6. An example of active immunity is the transfer of A. antibodies through the placenta. B. immunoglobulins through breastfeeding. C. antigens through vaccination. D. immune cells through a blood transfusion. 7. Which of the following classes of biological molecules include enzymes? A. Carbohydrates B. Lipids C. Proteins D. Vitamins 8. Which of the following parts of the circulatory system carries oxygenated blood? A. An artery moving blood from the heart to the lungs B. A vein moving blood to the heart from the body C. An artery moving blood from the heart to a muscle cell D. A venule moving blood to the heart from the liver 9. Which of the following genetic terms describes an observable trait of an individual? A. Heterozygous B. Genotype C. Phenotype D. Homozygous 10. Mutations during which of the following processes in animals will affect offspring of succeeding generations? A. Meiosis B. Mitosis C. Translation D. Transcription 11. Which of the following will happen if mRNA fails to be translated? A. The cell’s nucleus will produce more chromatin. B. Ribosomes will not be able to create protein. C. Mitochondria will release ATP. D. The cell will produce more mRNA 12. Which of the following is the balanced equation for photosynthesis in plant cells? For this one, the formats of the answers are messed up. The balanced formula is 6Co2+6H20+Energy = C6H12O6+6O2. Looking at the answers I think B is the one with the correct formula but cannot be sure. A 3C0+ 3H0 + Energy –)-CH120 + 30 2 266 2 B. 6C0+ 6Hp + Energy–)-CHp + 60 2 616 2 C. CH0 + 30–)-3C0+ 3H0 + Energy 6126 2 2 2 D. CHp + 60–)-6C0+ 6Hp + Energy 616 2 2 13. Which of the following classes of biomolecules are frequently responsible for bringing about cell differentiation? A. Transcription factors B. lnterleukins C. Cytokines D. Nucleotidyl transferases 14. Which of the following is the pH when the concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution are equal? A. 14 B. 7 C. 1 D. 0 15. Which of the following structures is present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? A. Golgi apparatus B. Cell membrane C. Endoplasmic reticulum D. Chloroplast 16. Which of the following is the purpose of valves in the venous circulatory system? A. Promoting movement of oxygenated blood toward the heart B. Facilitating stasis of blood in the veins C. Propelling blood through the vena cava D. Preventing backward flow of deoxygenated blood 17. Which of the following cellular organelles is the site of translation during protein synthesis? A. Cell membrane B. Nucleolus C. Golgi apparatus D. Ribosome 18. In an experiment, a researcher counts the number of oxygen bubbles produced by water plants placed under different colors of light. The researcher finds that water plants placed under white light release more oxygen bubbles than water plants placed under red light. Which of the following statements is best supported based on the observation? A. Light can break up water molecules to form oxygen. B. White light increases photosynthesis in plants. C. Red light has no affect on the release of oxygen from water plants. D. An increase in temperature decreases the amount of oxygen produced by plants. 19. When normal atmospheric conditions are present, water is constantly being cycled between liquid and gaseous states by which of the following pairs of processes? A. Turgor pressure and filtration B. Melting point and condensation C. Evaporation and condensation D. Filtration and evaporation 20. A scientist has noted a possible relationship between a certain chemical substance found in fish and the occurrence of kidney failure in humans. Which of the following preliminary steps should the scientist take before conducting a controlled experiment? A. Establish a cause and effect relationship between the substance and the outcome. B. Review the literature to determine what other research is available on this topic. C. Write a research grant proposal to the appropriate federal funding agency. D. Distribute letters of consent to human subjects who will be used in the research. 21. In the digestive tract, mouth is to bolus as A. stomach is to chyme. B. gallbladder is to insulin. C. small intestine is to carbohydrate. D. esophagus is to peristalsis. 22. A test is performed to see if applying fertilizer to rose bushes increases the number of flowers on bushes. Which of the following best relates to the hypothesis for this experiment? A. Watering all of the rose bushes the same amount throughout the experiment B. Predicting that fertilizer will increase the number of flowers on bushes C. Selecting a rose bush that will not be fertilized D. Measuring the number of flowers on the rose bushes each week 23. One neutron is added to the nucleus of an atom of carbon-12. In which of the following ways has the atom been changed? A. It bonds with different atoms. B. It has an atomic number of 7. C. It has been changed to an ion. D. It has a greater atomic mass. 24. Plant~Deer~Tiger The first step in the energy chain that created the bonds of proteins in the tiger’s muscle cells in the food chain shown above is the A. deer the tiger ate. B. plant the deer ate. C. photons the sun made. D. carbohydrates the plant made. 25. Which of the following chemicals is insoluble in water? A. C6(benzene) H6 B. HCI {hydrochloric acid) C. NH3 (ammonia) D. NaHC03 (sodium bicarbonate) 26. Which of the following nitrogenous bases is found exclusively in DNA? A. Adenine B. Cytosine C. Guanine D. Thymine 27. Both digestion and absorption happen in which of the following parts of the digestive system? A. Gallbladder B. Esophagus C. Stomach D. Small Intestine 28. Which of the following tissues would send a message to the brain indicating that someone has touched something hot? A. Epithelial tissue B. Nervous tissue C. Muscle tissue D. Connective tissue 29. Which of the following describes the classification of humans? A. The genus Homo and the species sapiens B. The phyla Homo and the species sapiens C. The family sapiens and the genus Homo D. The class sapiens and the genus Homo 30. Cellular respiration of glucose is an example of which of the following? A. Anabolism B. Reverse osmosis C. Osmosis D. Catabolism 31. A student conducts an investigation in which she dissolves 1 gram (g) each of several substances in 50 milliliters (ml) of water. She has 12 identical plastic cups of water. She places 1 g of salt in three cups, 1 g of sugar in three cups, and 1 g of baking soda in three cups. Three cups contain only water. She places all the cups in a freezer and records the temperature in each cup every 15 minutes for 4 hours. Which of the following is the best way for the student to display the results of this investigation? A. Pie chart B. Bar graph C. Venn diagram D. Line graph 33. In pea plants, the allele for tall (T) is dominant to the allele for short (t). Which of the following is the percent of offspring that will be tall if a heterozygous plant (Tt) is crossed with a homozygous tall plant? A. 100% B. 75% C. 50% D. 25% 34. An equal mass of which of the following states of matter could completely fill both a 100 mL or 500 ml container? A. Gas B. Liquid C. Mixture D. Solid 35. Which of the following describes mitosis? A. A single cell splits and shares its chromatin with a sex cell. B. Two parent cells combine to create a single cell with equal amounts of DNA from each parent. C. The nucleus of a single cell creates two new nuclei with DNA identical to the parent cell. D. An X and a Y chromosome divide in the nucleus of a sex cell before combining into a gamete. 36. The nucleus of an atom is composed of uncharged particles as well as which of the following? A. Protons B. Neutrons C. Electrons D. Positrons 37. Less-economically developed countries will experience higher birth rates than more-economically developed countries due to A. decreased availability of sanitary water. B. higher infant mortality rate. C. higher literacy rate of women. D. increased availability of contraceptives. 38. DNA can copy itself quite accurately while RNA cannot because only DNA is A. in double helix form . B. surrounded and supported by histone proteins. C. a polymer of nucleotides. D. confined to the nucleus. 39. Experiments cannot validate hypotheses, only falsify them. The statement above can be restated in which of the following ways? A. Until disproved, an explanation for an observation is valid. B. Certain concepts cannot be subjected to direct experimentation. C. A hypothesis that has not been falsified remains provisional. D. Proving a hypothesis exempts it from further testing. 40. A researcher collects high-resolution photographs of the Earth taken from outer space at annual intervals for the last decade. This data would be most useful to analyze which of the following? A. Human movement during crises B. Migration patterns of large whales C. Deforestation in the rainforest D. Weather patterns during hurricanes 41. Moths with a certain coloring are camouflaged in their habitat. Over time, more moths are born with this coloring. Which of the following best explains the increasing number of moths with this coloring? A. Natural selection B. Gene flow C. Genetic drift D. Sexual selection 42. Pepsin, which speeds up the breakdown of proteins, is classified as A. a nucleic acid. B. a carbohydrate. C. an enzyme. D. a lipid. 43. Which of the following is the purpose of the waxy substance that builds up in the ear canal? A. Insulating the ear canal B. Trapping and removing debris C. Promoting sound conduction D. Cushioning and stabilizing the pinna 44. Lungs originate from tissue that also gives rise to the A. digestive system. B. circulatory system. C. nervous system. D. musculoskeletal system. 45. Which of the following properties of water helps organisms maintain homeostasis with regard to thermoregulation? A. High heat capacity B. Adhesion C. Surface tension D. Capillary action 46. The function of the Golgi apparatus is to A. synthesize lipids. B. degrade nucleic acids. C. package proteins. D. assemble carbohydrates. 47. Fitness is a result of which of the following factors? A. Overproduction B. Adaptation C. Variability D. Homology 48. When calculating population growth, which of the following equations is appropriate? A. (Emigrants-immigrants)+ (births-deaths) B. (Immigrants-emigrants)+ (births -deaths) C. (Births+ deaths)-(emigrants + immigrants) D. (Births-deaths) -(immigrants+ emigrants) 49. A researcher wants to develop a new pharmaceutical compound to treat pain. Which of the following strategies will likely be the most effective process? A. Test extracts from newly discovered plants for pain-killing substances. B. Read anthropological studies to discover plants identified to relieve pain. C. Study molecular structures of existing pain medications and make structural analogs. D. Research the pain receptors of people who have unusually high pain thresholds. 50. Two boys pull their identical sleds to the top of a hill. One boy loads his sled with bricks while the other boy does not put any extra objects in his sled. The two boys, each weighing the same, get into their sleds and have a friend start them with equal pushes down the hill. Which of the following hypotheses are the boys most likely testing? A. The heavier the object, the more momentum it will have. B. The force of sliding friction is greater than the force of rolling friction. C. The size of the frictional force is determined by the types of surfaces rubbing together. D. The faster an object is traveling, the more momentum it will have. 51 . An individual suffers severe blunt trauma to the thoracic cavity. Which of the following organs are at greatest risk from this injury? A. Heart and lungs B. Liver and stomach C. Brain and spinal cord D. Large and small intestines 52. Which of the following statements best explains the relationship between the mitochondria and the plasma membrane? A. The mitochondria makes proteins that become a part of the plasma membrane. B. The mitochondria makes a gas that the plasma membrane uses. C. The mitochondria builds cytoskeleton that gives the plasma membrane strength. D. The mitochondria makes ATP that the plasma membrane can use for energy. 53. A researcher is studying the rate of chemical reactions within living blood cells. When placing the cells into a petri dish with a pH of 2.5, the researcher should predict that the rate of the reactions will A. increase immediately. B. decrease immediately. C. remain the same. D. increase immediately, then decrease gradually. 54. Which of the following represents Boyle’s gas law? A. Gas turns to a liquid when temperature reaches 0° C (32° F). B. As the volume of a gas increases, the temperature also increases. C. At any temperature, inert gases are less combustible than non-inert gases. D. At a fixed temperature, the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely related

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