South University NSG5003 Final Question 1 (5 points)   Which component of the cell produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by using oxygen to remove hydrogen atoms from specific substrates in an oxidative r 1

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South University NSG5003 Final

Question 1 (5 points)

Which content of the cell commoditiess hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by using oxygen to transport hydrogen atoms from unfair substrates in an oxidative reaction?

Question 1 options:

Lysosomes

Peroxisomes

Ribosomes

Oxyhydrosomes

Question 2 (5 points)

What is a conclusion of plasma membrane detriment to the mitochondria?

Question 2 options:

Enzymatic digestion demurs deoxyribonucleic shrewd (DNA) union.

Influx of calcium ions demurs adenosine triphosphate (ATP) product.

Edema from an influx in sodium motives a inferior in ATP product.

Potassium transfers out of the mitochondria, which consumes the infrastructure.

Question 3 (5 points)

Which declaration is a designation of one of the characteristics of apoptosis?

Question 3 options:

Apoptosis involves programmed cell release of incompact solitary cells.

Apoptosis is characterized by the extending of the accessible-part and the cytoplasm.

Apoptosis involves unpredictable patterns of cell release.

Apoptosis products in merciful malignancies.

Question 4 (5 points)

During cell defective motived by hypoxia, sodium and insinuate impel into the cell owing:

Question 4 options:

During cell defective motived by hypoxia, sodium and insinuate impel into the cell owing:

The interrogate that transports sodium out of the cell cannot part owing of a inferior in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels.

The osmotic wave is augmentationd, which pulls concomitant sodium counter the cell membrane

Oxygen is not profitable to secure delay sodium to repress it forthcoming a whileout of the cell.

Question 5 (5 points)

What is an commodities of ionizing radiation charybdis?

Question 5 options:

Respiratory distress

Sun intolerance

Deoxyribonucleic shrewd (DNA) aberrations

Death

Question 6 (5 points)

Obesity creates a main abandon for dehydration in mob owing:

Question 6 options: article 3 q.2

?Adipose cells inclose illiberal insinuate owing fat is insinuate repelling.

The metabolic admonishs of unctuous adults are sinferior than those of scant adults.

The admonishs of urine output of unctuous adults are surpassing than those of scant adults.

The thirst receptors of the hypothalamus do not part commoditiesively.

Question 7 (5 points)

In abstracted to osmosis, what intensity is complicated in the impelment of insinuate among the plasma and interstitial soft rooms?

Question 7 options:

a) 

Oncotic wave

b) 

Buffering

c) 

Net filtration

d) 

Hydrostatic wave

Question 8 (5 points)

Venous obstacle is a motive of edema owing of an augmentation in which wave?

Question 8 options:

a) 

Capillary hydrostatic

b) 

Interstitial hydrostatic

c) 

Capillary oncotic

d) 

Interstitial oncotic

Question 9 (5 points)

At the arterial end of capillaries, soft impels from the intravascular room into the interstitial room owing:

Question 9 options:

a) 

The interstitial hydrostatic wave is surpassing than the capillary hydrostatic wave.

b) 

The capillary hydrostatic wave is surpassing than the capillary oncotic wave.

c) 

The interstitial oncotic wave is surpassing than the interstitial hydrostatic wave.

d) 

The capillary oncotic wave is inferior than the interstitial hydrostatic wave.

Question 10 (5 points)

It is gentleman that natriuretic peptides:

Question 10 options:

a) 

Decrease order wave and augmentation sodium and insinuate perspiration.

b) 

Increase order wave and inferior sodium and insinuate perspiration.

c) 

Increase the nucleus admonish and inferior potassium perspiration.

d) 

Decrease the nucleus admonish and augmentation potassium perspiration.

Question 11 (5 points)

What motives the clinical manifestations of indistinctness, convulsions, cerebral hemorrhage, and coma in hypernatremia?

Question 11 options:

a) 

High sodium in the order vessels pulls insinuate out of the brain cells into the order vessels, causing brain cells to revolt.

b) 

High sodium in the brain cells pulls insinuate out of the order vessels into the brain cells, causing them to extend.

c) 

High sodium in the order vessels pulls potassium out of the brain cells, which slows the synapses in the brain. 

d) 

High sodium in the order vessels draws chloride into the brain cells followed by insinuate, causing the brain cells to extend.

Question 12 (5 points)

A elder determinant of the hanging membrane virtual deficiencyful for the transmission of firmness impulses is the bearing among:

Question 12 options:

a) 

Intracellular and extracellular Na+

b) 

. Intracellular and extracellular K+

c) 

Intracellular Na+ and extracellular K+

d) 

Intracellular K+ and extracellular Na+

Question 13 (5 points)

In hyperkalemia, what fluctuate occurs to the cells’ hanging membrane virtual?

Question 13 options:

a) 

Hypopolarization

b) 

Hyperexcitability

c) 

Depolarization

d) 

Repolarization

Question 14 (5 points)

Physiologic pH is repressed at closely 7.4 owing bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic shrewd (H2CO3) hold in a bearing of:

Question 14 options:

a) 

20:1

b) 

1:20

c) 

10:2

d) 

10:5

Question 15 (5 points)

Increased capillary hydrostatic wave products in edema owing of:

Question 15 options:

a) 

Losses or mixed product of plasma albumin

b) 

Inflammation producting from an immune reply

c) 

Blockage delayin the lymphatic medium system

d) 

Sodium and insinuate retention

Question 16 (5 points)

Hypomethylation and the producting commodities on oncogenes product in:

Question 16 options:

a) 

A inferior in the principle of the oncogene, thus suppressing cancer development

b) 

 Deactivation of MLH1 to demur deoxyribonucleic shrewd (DNA) repair

c) 

An augmentation in knob series from merciful to malignant

d) 

Overexpression of micro-ribonucleic shrewd (miRNA), producting in knobigenesis

Question 17 (5 points)

The parts of the elder histocompatibility close (MHC) and CD1 molecules are equally owing both:

Question 17 options:

a) 

Are antigen-presenting molecules

b) 

Bind antigens to antibodies

c) 

Secrete interleukins (ILs) during the immune order

d) 

Are capable of activating cytotoxic T lymphocytes

Question 18 (5 points)

The B-cell receptor (BCR) close parts uniquely by:

Question 18 options:

a) 

Communicating advice about the antigen to the ally T (Th) cell

b) 

Secreting chemical remarkables to succor cells communicate

c) 

Recognizing the antigen on the exterior of the B lymphocyte

d) 

Communicating advice about the antigen to the cell accessible-part

Question 19 (5 points)

The origination of clonal dissonance includes a order that:

Question 19 options:

a) 

Involves antigens that chosen lymphocytes delay harmonious receptors

b) 

Allows the differentiation of cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells or grown T cells

c) 

Takes attribute in the important (central) lymphoid organs

d) 

Causes antigens to extend and vary their populations

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Question 20 (5 points)

Vaccinations are able to contribute safety athwart true microorganisms owing of the:

Question 20 options:

a) 

Strong reply from immunoglobulin M (IgM)

b) 

Level of safety contributed by immunoglobulin G (IgG)

c) 

Memory cells for immunoglobulin E (IgE)

d) 

Rapid reply from immunoglobulin A (IgA)

Question 21 (5 points)

What is the mechanism that products in form II hypersensitivity reactions?

Question 21 options:

a) 

Antibodies lure mast cells by secureing to receptors that remarkable its degranulation, followed by a send-away of preformed mediators.

b) 

Antibodies secure to disdisdissoluble antigens that were released into whole softs, and the immune closees are then deposited in the structures.

c) 

Cytotoxic T (Tc) lymphocytes or lymphokine-supple ally T 1 (Th1) cells promptly onslaught and consume cellular targets.

d) 

Antibodies secure to the antigens on the cell exterior.

Question 22 (5 points)

When disdisdissoluble antigens from infectious agents penetreprimand vogue, structure detriment is a product of:

Question 22 options:

a) 

Complement-mediated cell lysis

b) 

Phagocytosis by macrophages

c) 

Phagocytosis in the spleen

d) 

Neutrophil granules and toxic oxygen products

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Question 23 (5 points)

? Considering the hypothalamus, a flush is commoditiesd by:

Question 23 options:

a) 

Endogenous pyrogens acting promptly on the hypothalamus

b) 

Exogenous pyrogens acting promptly on the hypothalamus

c) 

Immune closees acting inpromptly on the hypothalamus

d) 

Cytokines acting inpromptly on the hypothalamus

Question 24 (5 points)

Vaccines athwart viruses are created from:

Question 24 options:

a) 

Killed organisms or extracts of antigens

b) 

Live organisms weakened to commodities antigens

c) 

Purified toxins that possess been chemically detoxified

d) 

Recombinant pathogenic protein

Question 25 (5 points)

Carcinoma in situ is characterized by which fluctuates?

Question 25 options:

a) 

Cells possess meek through the topical sole membrane.

b) 

Cells possess invaded next extreme structure.

c) 

Cells abide topicalized in the glandular or squamous cells

d) 

Cellular and structure alterations designate dysplasia.

Question 26 (5 points)

Two “hits” are required to inactivate knob-suppressor genes owing:

Question 26 options:

a) 

Each allele must be altered and each peculiar has two copies, or alleles, of each gene, one from each producer.

b) 

The foremost hit stops structure augmentation and the promote hit is deficiencyed to motive unnatural structure augmentation.

c) 

Tumor-suppressor genes are larger than proto-oncogenes, requiring two hits to commodities carcinogenesis.

d) 

The foremost hit is scant to motive abundance detriment to motive a mutation.

Question 27 (5 points)

What is the skin-related sanity abandon requisite by some forms of chemotherapy?

Question 27 options:

a) 

Infection

b) 

Ultraviolet detriment

c) 

Pain

d) 

Erythema

Question 28 (5 points)

When a cadet is diagnosed delay cancer, which insinuation has the principal wave on the cadet’s spiritlessness admonish?

Question 28 options:

a) 

Age at the season of diagnosis

b) 

Participation in clinical trials

c) 

Proximity to a elder cancer composition center

d) 

Parental involvement in the composition planning

Question 29 (5 points)

Reflex activities uneasy delay the nucleus admonish, order wave, respirations, sneezing, gluttony, and coughing are controlled by which area of the brain?

Question 29 options:

a) 

Pons

b) 

Midbrain

c) 

Cerebellum

d) 

Medulla oblongata

Question 30 (5 points)

The edema of the excellent cervical outline forthcoming a spinal outline defective is considered spirit minatory owing of which feasible remainder?

Question 30 options:

a) 

Hypovolemic astound from order obsolete during the defective

b) 

Breathing difficulties from an inconclusiveness to the diaphragm

c) 

Head defective that likely occurred during the defective

d) 

Spinal astound nextly forthcoming the defective

Question 31 (5 points)

What term is used to draw the complication that can product from a spinal outline defective aloft T6 that is supple paroxysmal hypertension, as well-mannered-mannered as piloerection and excretion aloft the spinal outline lesion?

Question 31 options:

a) 

Craniosacral dysreflexia

b) 

Parasympathetic dysreflexia

c) 

Autonomic hyperreflexia

d) 

Retrograde hyperreflexia

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Question 32 (5 points)

Atheromatous plaques are most often found:

Question 32 options:

a) 

. In larger veins

b) 

Near capillary sphincters

c) 

At branches of arteries

d) 

On the venous sinuses

Question 33 (5 points)

Multiple sclerosis is best drawd as:

Question 33 options:

a) 

A CNS demyelination, perchance from an immunogenetic virus

b) 

Inadequate give of acetylcholine at the neurotransmitter joining as a product of an autoimmune guess-work

c) 

The depletion of dopamine in the CNS as a product of a virus

d) 

A degenerative guess-work of inferior and excellent motor neurons motived by viral-immune factors

Question 34 (5 points)

Graves ailment develops from:

Question 34 options:

a) 

A viral contagion of the thyroid gland that motives overproduct of thyroid hormone

b) 

An autoimmune order during which lymphocytes and refractory structure reattribute thyroid structure

c) 

Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin, which motives overproduct of thyroid hormones

d) 

Ingestion of goitrogens, which inhibits the union of the thyroid hormones, causing goiter

Question 35 (5 points)

Pathologic fluctuates associated delay Graves ailment include:

Question 35 options:

a) 

High levels of circulating thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins

b) 

Diminished levels of TRH

c) 

High levels of TSH

d) 

Diminished levels of thyroid-astringent globulin

Question 36 (5 points)

A enduring diagnosed delay diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has the forthcoming laboratory values: arterial pH 7.20, serum glucose 500 mg/dl, definitive urine glucose and ketones, serum potassium (K+) 2 mEq/L, and serum sodium (Na+) 130 mEq/L. The enduring reports that he has been impaired delay the “flu” for a week. What analogy do these values possess to his insulin lack?

Question 36 options:

a) 

Increased glucose use motives the transfer of soft from the intravascular to the intracellular room.

b) 

. Decreased glucose use motives fatty shrewd use, ketogenesis, metabolic shrewdosis, and osmotic diuresi

c) 

Increased glucose and fatty shrewds kindle renal diuresis, electrolyte missing, and metabolic alkalosis.

d) 

Decreased glucose use products in protein catabolism, structure corruption, respiratory shrewdosis, and electrolyte missing.

Question 37 (5 points)

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is best drawd as:

Question 37 options:

a) 

Resistance to insulin by insulin-sensitive structures

b) 

The deficiency for lispro instead of established insulin

c) 

An augmentation in glucagon secretion from α cells of the pancreas

d) 

The nearness of insulin autoantibodies that consume β cells in the pancreas

Question 38 (5 points)

The vile hay flush allergy is developed through a reaction that is mediated by which class of immunoglobulins?

Question 38 options:

a) 

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)

b) 

Immunoglobulin G (IgG)

c) 

Immunoglobulin M (IgM)

d) 

T cells

Question 39 (5 points)

A peculiar diagnosed delay form 1 diabetes experiences crave, lightheadedness, tachycardia, pallor, muddiness, and indistinctness. The most credible motive of these symptoms is:

Question 39 options:

a) 

Hyperglycemia motived by inaccurate insulin administration

b) 

The dawn marvel from eating a snack anteriorly bedtime

c) 

Hypoglycemia motived by augmentationd exercise

d) 

Somogyi commodities from insulin sensitivity

Question 40 (5 points)

Hypoglycemia, followed by recoil hyperglycemia, is observed in those delay:

Question 40 options:

a) 

The Somogyi commodities

b) 

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