The American Bar Association (ABA) and the Conference of State Court Administrators (COSCA) have each developed ____________ for the reasonable amount of time for processing of cases.     a. binding

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The American Bar Association (ABA) and the Conference of State Court Administrators (COSCA) have each developed ____________ for the reasonable amount of time for processing of cases.

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  a. binding requirements  

  b. contradictory standards  

  c. nonbinding expectations  

  d. dispositional requirements 

Discretion is best defined as ____________.

  a. making decisions based on stereotypes about gender or ethnicity  

  b. the legal right of a police officer to determine the outcome of a crime  

  c. the ability of a court administrator to make changes in procedure without approval from the judge  

  d. the lawful ability of an agent of government to exercise choice in making a decision 

____________ laws are federal or state statutes that specify time limits for bringing a case to trial after arrest.

  a. Court delay  

  b. Speedy-trial  

  c. Sixth Amendment  

  d. Supplementation 

In a civil case, the burden of proof is ____________.

  a. probable cause  

  b. beyond a reasonable doubt  

  c. by a totality of the circumstances  

  d. by a preponderance of the evidence 

The ____________ is/are the initial rules that govern the United State citizens.

  a. Bill of Rights  

  b. serious laws  

  c. Declaration of Independence  

  d. self-governing laws 

—————————————————————————————–

The criminal justice system is considered to be a nonsystem by some people. The fact that there are many agencies that are working within the same component but separate makes the system a(n) ____________ one.

  a. broken  

  b. fragmented  

  c. unified  

  d. noble 

The adversary system is important to the criminal justice system because it ensures the rights of the accused are protected ____________.

  a. using several actors and presuming the accused is innocent until proven guilty  

  b. by protecting the rights of others and presuming the accused is innocent until proven guilty  

  c. by assuming all actors are working towards the same goal  

  d. by incarcerating all defendants 

The term ____________ refers to moving cases quickly through the criminal justice process, including practices such as notifying defendants of their rights in a large group rather than one by one.

  a. speedy trial  

  b. public defense  

  c. prosecutorial discretion  

  d. assembly-line justice  

The National Center for State Courts landmark 1978 study on delay in criminal cases found that assertions about that delay affecting ____________ were not supported.

  a. overcrowding in jails  

  b. whether defendants showed up for court appearances   

  c. prosecutors’ decisions to offer lenient plea bargains  

  d. final sentence lengths 

In a criminal case, the burden of proof is ____________.

  a. beyond a reasonable doubt  

  b. by a preponderance of the evidence  

  c. by a totality of the circumstances  

  d. probable cause 

Which characteristic governs the working relationships of judge, prosecutor, and defense attorney in the courtroom?

  a. conflict  

  b. cooperation  

  c. the adversarial system  

  d. backroom dealmaking 

Which of the following is NOT cited as one of the goals of law-in-action approaches to court delay?

  a. reduction in the number of plea bargains  

  b. alteration of court practitioners’ attitudes  

  c. improvement in case scheduling  

  d. better coordination about court workgroup members 

Within the context of a courtroom work group, the term “socialization” refers to ____________.

  a. an unspoken requirement that members of the courtroom work group will spend time together informally after work hours  

  b. a newcomer learning the formal requirements and informal rules of behavior associated with the job  

  c. the expectation that prosecution and defense attorneys will behave professionally and respectfully toward one another  

  d. the expectation that the defense attorney is responsible for the behavior of defendants who have been deemed “antisocial” in the pretrial report 

Legal ethics is of critical importance because the American legal system is based on ____________, which must be regulated to ensure a “fair fight.”

  a. the adversarial system  

  b. prosecutorial advantage  

  c. concept of “innocent until proven guilty”  

  d. federalism 

Which criminal justice model focuses on apprehending, convicting, and punishing offenders?

  a. crime control model  

  b. due process model  

  c. rehabilitation model  

  d. incapacitation model 

The ____________ Amendment guarantees defendants “the right to a speedy and public trial.”

  a. Sixth  

  b. Fifth  

  c. Fourth  

  d. Eighth 

Which amendment was cited in the decision Brown v. Mississippi?

  a. Fourth Amendment  

  b. Sixth Amendment  

  c. Eighth Amendment  

  d. Fourteenth Amendment  

Legal ethics represents a type of ____________, in which principles are related to specific issues.

  a. specific morality  

  b. professional ethics  

  c. applied ethics  

  d. action morality 

Which of the following actors may exercise discretion in sentencing a convicted defendant in a courtroom setting?

  a. judge  

  b. prosecutor  

  c. grand jury  

  d. arresting officer 

Approximately ____________ people earn a living working in the criminal justice system.

  a. 1 million  

  b. 2.5 million  

  c. 4.5 million  

  d. 3.25 million 

For an act to be considered criminal, the prosecution needs to prove that the accused had a level of ____________ to accompany the actus reus.

  a. mens rea  

  b. rea mens  

  c. actus mens  

  d. mens actus 

Which of the following would be considered a member of law enforcement in a courtroom setting?

  a. probation officer  

  b. bail agent  

  c. bailiff  

  d. prosecutor 

____________ is often cited as a reason for the increase in assembly-line justice, but this practice actually predates the issue of the overly busy courthouse.

  a. The war on drugs  

  b. Plea bargaining  

  c. Public defense  

  d. Prosecutorial misconduct 

Which anticrime campaign has greatly increased the volume of cases coming into court, resulting in an increase in assembly-line justice?

  a. war on drugs  

  b. broken windows  

  c. anticybercrime campaign  

  d. crackdown on violent crime  

Which of the following is responsible for the mandate of no more than 30 days between arrest and indictment and 70 days between indictment and trial?

  a. The Speedy Trial Act (1974, 1979)  

  b. Betterman v. Montana (2016)  

  c. Barker v. Wingo (1972)  

  d. The Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution 

Homicide makes up ____________ of all criminal arrests in the United States.

  a. around 10 percent  

  b. less than 1 percent  

  c. approximately 5 percent  

  d. more than 30 percent 

____________ are nominated by the president of the United States and confirmed by the U.S. Senate.

  a. State Supreme Court judges  

  b. Magistrate judges  

  c. State Court judges  

  d. Federal judges 

The American Bar Association (ABA) and the Conference of State Court Administrators (COSCA) have each developed ____________ for the reasonable amount of time for processing of cases.

  a. binding requirements  

  b. contradictory standards  

  c. nonbinding expectations  

  d. dispositional requirements 

The ____________ is/are the initial rules that govern the United State citizens.

  a. Bill of Rights  

  b. serious laws  

  c. Declaration of Independence  

  d. self-governing laws 

A 2010 study on courtroom security concluded that ____________.

  a. security improvements have not kept up with the incidence of violence in courthouses  

  b. most rural courthouses have more security than they need, while urban courthouses have lagged  

  c. both rural and urban courthouses are much more secure than they need to be on daily basis  

  d. too much emphasis is placed on securing courthouses from outside persons and not enough on the potential for violence from courthouse personnel 

In recent years, delay has been viewed as hampering society’s need for ____________.

  a. swift and certain punishment  

  b. assembly-line justice  

  c. a speedy prosecution  

  d. speedy and public trials  

Members of the courtroom work group develop a general agreement about what constitutes a(n) ____________, or what is typical for that kind of case.

  a. offense  

  b. speedy trial  

  c. normal crime  

  d. use of discretion 



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