Unit III: Mechanisms of Self-Defense   1. Which of the following is an example of a physical barrier? A. Antibacterial fatty acids B. Lysozymes in tears C.


Unit III: Mechanisms of Self-Defense

1.            Which of the behindcited is an in of a visible distribution?

A.            Antibacterial fatty sores

B.            Lysozymes in tears

C.            Epithelial cells

D.            Earwax



Epithelial cells construct natty junctions that are a visible distribution to minute for organisms.

2.            Which assertion is gentleman touching the provocative confutation?

A.            Provocative confutation is the third outoutcontinuity of plea.

B.            Provocative confutation relies on cellular components barely.

C.            Provocative confutation generates a nonbiased confutation.

D.            Provocative confutation arises at vigorous construction.



The provocative confutation is the help outoutcontinuity of plea. It arises at the family of construction deterioration and generates a nonbiased confutation that involves cellular and chemical components.

3.            Which fulfilment ingredient is considered an anaphylatoxin?

A.            C3a

B.            C1

C.            C7

D.            C9



C3a, C5a, and C4a are anaphylatoxins. They can expose the quick degranulation of mast cells and the free of histamine.

4.            Which receptor is unfolded on macrophages and prepares confession and phagocytosis of bacterial pathogens?

A.            Fulfilment receptors

B.            Scavenger receptors

C.            Toll-like receptors

D.            Pattern confession receptors



The scavenger receptors are principally unfolded on macrophages and prepare confession and phagocytosis of bacterial pathogens. Fulfilment receptors allow a multiformity of waste-matter manufactured through activation of the fulfilment order. Toll-like receptors are unfolded on the deportment of cells, including epithelial, mast, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. They allow pathogen-associated molecular patterns or urgencyed army cells. Pattern confession receptors allow patterns of epidemic atoms. These receptors are plant on cells concerned in promotive opposition.

5.            Which assertion touching mast cells is gentleman?

A.            Histamine principles vasoconstriction.

B.            Mast cells are plant barely in dignity vessels.

C.            Snake exultation, bee malignitys, and toxins may principle activation.

D.            Mast cells are not concerned in allergic reactions.



A reckon of things principle the activation of mast cells, including visible deterioration, chemical embodiments (including toxins, bee malignity, and snake exultation), immunologic media, and activation of an provocative confutation. Histamine is freed from mast cells and principles vasodilation. Mast cells are plant in vague connective construction arrest to dignity vessels. Mast cells are concerned in initiating frequent allergic reactions.

6.            Which account describes an soreic sulfur-containing lipid that products possessions correspondent to histamine?

A.            Leukotriene

B.            Prostaglandin

C.            Adhesion atom

D.            Phagocyte



Leukotrienes act correspondent to histamine and principle sfrequently muscle defilement, acceptiond vascular permeability, and chemotaxis. Prostaglandins principle acceptiond vascular permeability, chemotaxis, and abstinence. Adhesion atoms acception the stickiness among cells. Phagocyte cells ingest and adjust of outlandish embodied.

7.            Which assertion is gentleman touching neutrophils?

A.            Neutrophils are agranular.

B.            Neutrophils are the prevailing phagocytes of exhibit inflammation.

C.            Neutrophils are the widest dignity cells.

D.            Neutrophils penetreprimand the family of deterioration behind lymphocytes and macrophages.



Neutrophils are the prevailing phagocytes of exhibit inflammation. They get precedently lymphocytes and macrophages. Monocytes are the widest dignity cells and are granular.

8.            What biochemical harbinger is manufactured by macrophages and lymphocytes in confutation to a bacterial pathogen?

A.            Interleukins

B.            Interferons

C.            Chemokines

D.            Tumor necrosis ingredient



Interleukins are biochemical harbingers manufactured by macrophages and lymphocytes in confutation to a bacterial pathogen. Interferons principally vindicate athwart viral communicated. Chemokines expose leukocyte chemotaxis. Tumor necrosis ingredient, manufactured by macrophages and lymphocytes, exposes a throng of proprovocative possessions including the improvement of endothelial cell adhesion.

9.            Constant inflammation is characterized by a(an):

A.            Lack of monster cells

B.            Absence of exudate

C.            Stout instil of lymphocytes and macrophages

D.            Inflammation that lasts short than 2 weeks



Chronic inflammation is characterized by a stout instil of lymphocytes and macrophages. Monster cells are multinucleated cells that are constructed by fused macrophages during granuloma constructation. Constant inflammation frequently consequences in pus constructation, feculent empty, and short hurt salutiferous. Constant inflammation of any principle lasts longer than 2 weeks.

10.          Which of the behindcited are not intrinsic distributions? (Select all that use.)

A.            Physical

B.            Resistance

C.            Biochemical

D.            Mechanical

Answer: , C, and D


Resistance is a media by which the association may abandon pith contaminated, but it is not a intrinsic distribution. The intrinsic distributions comprise visible, biochemical, and habitual, as courteous as inflammation at the association's deportments.

11.          Which characteristics are manifest of vascular deterioration and inflammation? (Select all that use.)

A.            Redness

B.            Coolness to the touch

C.            Warmth to the touch

D.            Increased swellin


E.            Pain

Answer: , C, D, and E


The indelicate characteristics that are manifest for inflammation in vascular construction are redness, ardor, protuberance, and abstinence.

12.          Which pathways activate the fulfilment order? (Select all that use.)

A.            Antigen-antibody

B.            Classical

C.            Lectin

D.            Alternative

Answer:B, C, and D


The fulfilment order may be activated by the augustan, lectin, and opinion pathways.

13.          Which operations of the clotting order are exhibited at the family of deterioration or inflammation? (Select all that use.)

A.            Prevents the expand of poison to close constructions.

B.            Traps microorganisms at the family of highest provocative cell essence.

C.            Prevents clot constructation at the family of deterioration.

D.            Provides a framework for advenient retrieve and salutiferous.

Answer: , B, and D


The clotting order exhibits the behindcited operations: (1) forefends the expand of poison to close constructions; (2) traps microorganisms and outlandish bodies at the family of inflammation for non-location by infiltrating cells such as neutrophils and macrophages; (3) constructs a clot that stops bleeding; and (4) provides a framework for advenient retrieve and salutiferous.

14.          Which of the behindcited are orderic possessions of inflammation? (Select all that use.)

A.            Abscess constructation

B.            Fever

C.            Leukocytosis

D.            Increased equalizes of plasma proteins

E.            Decreased equalizes of plasma proteins

Answer: , C, and D


The three elementary orderic changes associated behind a while an clever provocative confutation are ardor, leukocytosis, and acceptiond equalizes in circulating plasma proteins. Abscesses are a persomal correction of inflammation and are walled-off lesions industrious behind a while feculent exudates.

15.          Which is a outlandish or nonself pith?

A.            Immunoglobulins

B.            Lymphocytes

C.            Antibodies

D.            Antigens



Antigens are allowd as outlandish and arise the immune confutation. Immunoglobulins and antibodies are segregate of the adaptive immune confutation; they assault the antigen. Lymphocytes are a kind of dignity cell that is segregate of the adaptive confutation.

16.          Which assertion is gentleman touching the immune confutation in humans?

A.            Precedently family, lymphocytes are not manufactured.

B.            B lymphocytes follow from the thymus.

C.            The thymus frees aged lymphocytes.

D.            Generation of clonal dissimilarity arises in elementary lymphoid organs.



Generation of clonal dissimilarity arises in the elementary lymphoid organs, which comprises the thymus (T lymphocytes) and bone life (B lymphocytes). Precedently family, T and B lymphocytes that allow almost any outlandish antigen prevail. The thymus frees imaged T cells that own the force to allow outlandish antigens.

17.          Which assertion best describes the cells and their operations in the humoral arm of the immune order?

A.            Cells endure unanalogousiation and unfold into subpopulations.

B.            Cells assault cancerous cells.

C.            Antibodies are principally legal for vindicateion.

D.            Cells in the humoral arm are too denominated cellular privilege.



Antibodies are principally legal for vindicateion athwart banees and bacteria and are segregate of the humoral arm of the immune order. The antiassociation can straightway assail a microorganism or activate the immune confutation. T cells endure unanalogousiation, assault cancerous cells, and are segregate of cellular privilege.

18.          Which account describes the kind of privilege that arises when preformed antibodies are epidemic from a donor to a lodgment?

A.            Passive

B.            Active

C.            Memory

D.            Cellular



The two kinds of adaptive privilege are free and unresisting. Unresisting privilege arises when preformed antibodies are epidemic from a donor to a lodgment. An in of unresisting privilege is the paragraph of maternal antibodies athwart the placenta to the fetus. Free privilege is manufactured by an separeprimand behind either a intrinsic pitfall or an immunization. Memory cells are constructed through cellular and humoral privilege; they retain the antigen.

19.          What is the objected party of the antigen that is configured for confession and stringent of an antibody?

A.            Paratope

B.            Epitope

C.            Self-antigen

D.            Immunogen



The antigenic determinant or epitope is the objected party of the antigen that is configured for confession and stringent of an antibody. A paratope is the matching party on the antiassociation or lymphocyte receptor. A self-antigen is one that is not outlandish to the army. An immunogen is an antigen that exposes an immune confutation.

20.          Which antigen is too fine to arise an immune confutation?

A.            Carrier

B.            Allergen

C.            Hapten

D.            Self-antigen



A hapten is a atom that is outlandish but too fine to expose an immune confutation over. However, when it confines to a wider discharger atom, it is potent to expose an immune confutation. An allergen is an antigen that can expose an allergic confutation. A self-antigen is not outlandish but has the three other criteria to be an immunogen.

21.          Which assertion is gentleman touching immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies?

A.            IgA-2 is prevailingly plant in dignity.

B.            IgA-1 is prevailingly plant in the association's secretions.

C.            The J compact anchors simultaneously the IgA atoms.

D.            The gamma ponderous compact is prevailing.



The J compact anchors simultaneously the IgA atoms to construct dimers and accelerations them hinder deprivation from enzymes. IgA-1 is plant in the dignity, and IgA-2 is plant in the secretions of the association.

22.          It is gentleman that immunoglobulin E (IgE) is:

A.            Prepared to vindicate the army from wide banees.

B.            The elementary principle of vulgar allergies.

C.            The barely provocative cell that can loss a bane.

D.            Specifically prepared to forefend the encroachment and benevolence of pathogens through mucous membranes.



IgE is an antiassociation that is prepared to vindicate the army from flatterers and is the barely provocative cell that can loss a flatterer.

23.          Which assertion is gentleman touching aging and the immune order operation?

A.            Older adults own waned circulating antibodies.

B.            T-cell operation is acceptiond.

C.            Antiassociation origination to biased antigens is subject.

D.            Confutation to poison is quick.



T-cell operation is waned, and immune confutations are late. B-cell origination is subject; thus-far, the cells own acceptiond circulating antiassociation equalizes.

24.          Which criteria bias the stage of immunogenicity? (Select all that use.)

A.            Foreignness to the army

B.            Alienate bulk

C.            Alienate sum

D.            Chemical simplicity

E.            Chemical complication

Answer:A, B, C, and E


The indelicate criteria that bias the stage of immunogenicity are outlandishness to the army, alienate bulk, alienate sum, and diffuse complication.

25.          Which of the behindcited are molecular classes of immunoglobulins? (Select all that use.)

A.            IgC

B.            IgD

C.            IgE

D.            IgM

E.            IgN

Answer: , C, and D


The five classes of immunoglobulin are IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE.

26.          Which specification is gentleman?

A.            Allergy media the noxious possessions of hypersensitivity.

B.            Privilege media an altered immunologic confutation.

C.            Hypersensitivity media the vindicateive confutation to an antigen.

D.            Autoprivilege media the typical confutation to outlandish antigens.



Allergy media the noxious possessions of a hypersensitivity reaction.

27.          Which assertion is gentleman touching hypersensitivity reactions?

A.            They claim sensitization athwart a segregateicular antigen.

B.            They arise behind the elementary immune confutation.

C.            Reactions are regularly late.

D.            The most late reenjoyment is anaphylaxis.



A hypersensitivity reenjoyment claims sensitivity to an antigen and arises behind an diffuse helpary immune confutation. These reactions may then be proximate or late. The most proximate reenjoyment is anaphylaxis.

28.          Which assertion best describes a kind I reaction?

A.            Most kind I reactions are mediated by IgA.

B.            Most kind I reactions are allergic.

C.            Most arise athwart medications.

D.            Seldom does this kind supply to autoimmune ailments.



Most kind I reactions are allergic. They are mediated by IgE. Most arise athwart environmental antigens and can supply to some autoimmune ailments.

29.          What antiassociation confines to a mast cell?

A.            Cytotropic

B.            Allergen

C.            Antigen

D.            Fc



A cytotropic antiassociation (too denominated a skin-sensitizing antiassociation or reagin) is the antiassociation that confines to the mast cell. An allergen is an environmental antigen that exposes an allergic confutation. An antigen stimulates the immune confutation and antiassociation to confine to the mast cell. The Fc is the party of the mast cell where IgE confines.

30.          Which assertion is gentleman touching atopic separates?

A.            If one inventor has allergies, then a 4% fortuity consists that the manifestation procure own correspondent allergies.

B.            If two inventors own allergies, then a 50% fortuity consists that their manifestation procure own correspondent allergies.

C.            Atopic separates serve to product eminent quantities of IgE.

D.            No genes are associated behind a while an atopic aver.



Higher quantities of IgE are exhibit in atopic separates. If one inventor has an allergy, then the separeprimand has a 40% of having allergies; behind a while two inventors, the separeprimand has an 80% of having allergies. Multiple genes own been associated behind a while the atopic aver.

31.          Which assertion is gentleman of serum ailment?

A.            The constructation of immune complexes in the dignity principle serum ailment.

B.            It is the exemplification of complexes in the dignity vessels.

C.            It arises through cytotoxic T cells.

D.            It confines antigen to the cell deportment.



Serum ailment reactions are principled by the constructation of immune complexes in the dignity and their exemplification in target constructions. An Arthus reenjoyment deposits complexes into the walls of dignity vessels. Kind IV mechanisms arise through either cytotoxic T lymphocytes or lymphokine-producing T-helper (Th) 1 cells. Antigen is spring to the cell deportment in kind II reactions.

32.          The Arthus reenjoyment is an in of which kind of sensitivity reaction?

A.            I

B.            II

C.            III

D.            IV



The Arthus reenjoyment is a kind III hypersensitivity reaction.

33.          Which assertion is gentleman touching a kind IV allergic reaction?

A.            Is proximate in its enjoyment.

B.            Is instild behind a while B cells.

C.            Has a red, mild core.

D.            Can be epidemic by cells.



Type IV hypersensitivity reactions can be epidemic by cells but not by serum. Their enjoyments are late beprinciple their attack takes from 24 to 72 hours. The family is instild behind a while T lymphocytes and macrophages. A unobstructed compact cpenetreprimand surrounds the erythema (redness).

34.          Which is an in of an alloimmune ailment?

A.            Tuberculin reaction

B.            Graves ailment

C.            Contact dermatitis

D.            Penicillin allergy



Graves ailment, myasthenia gravis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, alloimmune neutropenia, and orderic lupus erythematosus are all ins of alloimmune ailments during which the cadet can be forced beprinciple the dame has the ailment. Tuberculin reenjoyment is a kind IV reaction. Contact dermatitis is a kind I reaction. Penicillin is an allergen that exposes kind I hypersensitivity.

35.          Which assertion is gentleman touching over packed red dignity cell (RBC) transfusions?

A.            Barely three unanalogous RBC antigens own been identified.

B.            Approximately 80 greater carbohydreprimand antigens consist.

C.            People behind a while O kind dignity own neither A or B antigens.

D.            A idiosyncratic behind a while kind A dignity incloses anti-O antibodies.



Type O dignity does not inclose kind A or B antigens. However, 80 greater unanalogous RBC antigens are exhibit. A idiosyncratic behind a while kind A dignity carries anti-B antibodies and a idiosyncratic behind a while kind B dignity carries anti-A antibodies. Those behind a while kind O dignity own anti-A and anti-B antibodies.

36.          Histamine free transfers to which of the behindcited? (Select all that use.)

A.            Bronchial sfrequently muscle defilement

B.            Bronchoconstriction

C.            Decreased vascular permeability

D.            Vasoconstriction

E.            Edema

Answer: , B, and E


Histamine contracts bronchial sfrequently muscle, which principles bronchoconstriction. Vascular permeability, edema, and vasodilation too acception.

37.          Which account describes an embodiment's force to product ailment?

A.            Virulence

B.            Pathogenicity

C.            Infectivity

D.            Immunogenicity



Pathogenicity is the force of an embodiment to product ailment and depends on the press of swarming, the space of construction loss, and the origination of toxins. Virulence is the compressiveness of a pathogen to principle grave ailment. Infectivity is the force of the pathogen to assail and expand in the army. Immunogenicity is the force of pathogens to expose an immune confutation.

38.          Which assertion is gentleman touching bacteremia?

A.            It arises behind a while a typical plea order of the association.

B.            Gram-positive bacteria typically principle bacteremia.

C.            Endotoxins frequently principle symptoms such as vasodilation.

D.            Symptoms comprise acceptiond dignity constraining.



Endotoxins are frequently manufactured by bacteria that acception in the dignity. Vulgar symptoms comprise vasodilation, hypotension (cheap dignity constraining), and waned oxygen introduction and can product cardiovascular horrify. Bacteremia is frequently principled by gram-negative bacteria and usually arises behind a while a scarcity of the association's plea mechanisms.

39.          Which assertion touching banees is gentleman?

A.            Viruses are short vulgar than bacterial communicated.

B.            Viruses freely product exotoxins.

C.            Viruses bypass frequent plea mechanisms by unfolding intracellularly.

D.            Viruses inclose all their genetic inconstruction in ribonucleic sore (RNA).



Viruses penetreprimand the cell and may bypass frequent plea mechanisms. Viruses are the most vulgar construct of poison. They inclose deoxyribonucleic sore (DNA) and RNA for their genetic notice. They do not product exotoxins or endotoxins.

40.          Which assertion touching ardor is gentleman?

A.            Ardor is a scarcity of the association to govern weather.

B.            An endogenous pyrogen may product ardor.

C.            The association's accessible thermostat is the pituitary gland.

D.            Ardor is a scarcity of the association's plea order.



A pyrogen is a pith that principles ardor. Exogenous and endogenous pyrogens consist and interest the regulatory set object in the hypothalamus, which is the association's thermostat. Ardor is not a scarcity of the association's plea order but may in-fact be profitable. The association does not miscarry to govern weather; rather, the weather is governd at a eminent equalize than typical behind a while a ardor.

41.          What supplys to antibiotic-resistant pathogens?

A.            Indiffuse sanitation

B.            Genetic mutation

C.            Loss of multidrug transporters

D.            Limited use of antibiotics



Antibiotic opposition usually consequences from genetic mutations in the microorganism that can be straightway corruptions to close microorganisms. Sanitation and pure drinking instil can acceleration curb poison. Multidrug transporters on the microorganism's membrane interest the reprimand of intracellular supply of antibiotics by forefending opening or increasing the efflux of the antibiotic into the cell. Overuse of antibiotics can transfer to the perdition of the typical flora and selective overgrowth of antibiotic-resistant strains.

42.          The stages of pathologic poison comprise which of the behindcited? (Select all that use.)

A.            Invasion

B.            Death

C.            Colonization

D.            Metastasis

E.            Multiplication

Answer: , C, and E


The stages of pathologic poison comprise location, encroachment, expand, and augmentation. Death and metastasis are not stages of pathologic poison.

43.          Which of the behindcited are mechanisms of antigenic discrepancy? (Select all that use.)

A.            Siderophoric switching

B.            Mutation

C.            Recombination

D.            Gene switching

Answer: , C, and D


Mutation, recombination, and gene switching all are constructs of antigenic discrepancy. Siderophores are lusty receptors on bacteria that help in replication, and they own rush to do behind a while antigenic discrepancy.

44.          Which mechanisms are used by banees to escape the immune confutation? (Select all that use.)

A.            Quick opposition

B.            Antigenic biasedity

C.            Self-protein coat

D.            Immune reservation

E.            Lipopolysaccharide

Answer: , C, and D


Viruses own unfolded a reckon of ways to escape the immune order, including quick opposition, the force to survive after a whilein a army cell, plaster the viral capsid behind a while self-antigens from the army cell, antigenic discrepancy, counteraction of immune complexes, fulfilment quibble, immune reservation, and construction loss.

45.          What is the specification of the refree confutation?

A.            Mounting a confutation in preclusion of a urgencyor

B.            Mounting a confutation in reenjoyment to a urgencyor

C.            Mounting a confutation to a erudite urgencyor

D.            Mounting a confutation to a visible urgencyor



A refree confutation is a psychologic confutation to a urgencyor. An anticipatory confutation is a psychologic confutation to an anticipated confutation. A situationed confutation is an anticipated psychologic (learned) confutation to stimuli that own been associated behind a while peril.

46.          A urgency confutation is arised in what segregate of the terse order?

A.            Peripheral terse order

B.            Exocrine order

C.            Parauncongenial terse order

D.            Accessible terse order



The urgency confutation is arised in the accessible terse and endocrine orders.

47.          A urgency confutation consequences in the stimulation of which uncongenial terse order receptors?

A.            α-Adrenergic receptors

B.            β-Receptors

C.            Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

D.            Growth hormone (GH)



The alpha receptors of the uncongenial terse order are stimulated during the urgency confutation.

48.          Which assertion is gentleman touching the possessions of circulating epinephrine in the association?

A.            The nature reprimand procure late down.

B.            The nature's contractility procure wane.

C.            Dignity vessels to skeletal muscle procure constrict.

D.            Evanescent hyperglycemia procure consequence.



Epinephrine dilates dignity vessels of the muscles and principles evanescent hyperglycemia. The epinephrine procure acception nature reprimand and contractility. The venous recompense to the nature procure acception, thus increasing cardiac output and dignity constraining.

49.          Which assertion is gentleman touching how cortisol reacts when activated by ACTH?

A.            Cortisol is plasma spring to corticotropin.

B.            Gluconeogenesis is halted.

C.            Cortisol acceptions dignity glucose.

D.            Cortisol wanes protein collocation.



Cortisol has frequent enjoyments. It is spring to a protein denominated transcortin. It stimulates gluconeogenesis, acceptions glucose origination, and acceptions protein collocation.

50.          Which assertion is gentleman touching the immune order in confutation to urgency?

A.            T-helper 1 (Th1) cells acception.

B.            A transfer in Th1 cells arises.

C.            The immune order is not forced.

D.            Cortisol is freed.



Stress can activate an enormous immune confutation through cortisol. It can principle the reservation of Th1 cells and a transfer in Th2 cells.

51.          Which of the behindcited is a operation of norepinephrine?

A.            Increases defilement of the nature

B.            Constricts sfrequently muscle in all dignity vessels

C.            Secretes steroid hormones

D.            Stimulates adrenal medulla



Norepinephrine is freed from the adrenal medulla and governs dignity constraining by constricting sfrequently muscle in all dignity vessels. Epinephrine acceptions myocardial contractility and nature reprimand. The steroid hormones are stimulated by the hypothalamus, which sets off a compact of events during which steroid hormones are secreted from the adrenal cortex. Cortisol is one of the elementary steroid hormones.

52.          Which assertion touching corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its bias on the immune order is gentleman?

A.            CRH is too freed from peripheral provocative familys.

B.            CRH principles vasoconstriction.

C.            CRH principles waned vascular permeability.

D.            Red dignity cells are the peripheral targets.



CRH is freed from the hypothalamus and from peripheral provocative familys. Beprinciple this hormone is proinflammatory, it principles vasodilation and acceptiond vascular permeability. The elementary target of peripheral CRH is the mast cell.

53.          Which assertion is gentleman touching urgency and the immune order?

A.            Seasonal allergies are akin to urgency.

B.            Cardiovascular ailment is one situation that is akin to urgency.

C.            The equalize of proprovocative cytokines is waned.

D.            Negative emotions principle few alterations in cytokine origination.



Cardiovascular ailment, aging, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, kind II diabetes mellitus, and constant preventive pulmonary ailment (COPD) are associated behind a while the prolonged influence of proprovocative cytokines. These proprovocative cytokines acception during urgency. Negative emotions are straightway associated behind a while the acceptiond equalize of these proprovocative cytokines.

54.          Which of the behindcited are stages in the unfoldment of the unconcealed congeniality syndrome? (Select all that use.)

A.            Alarm

B.            Exposure

C.            Resistance

D.            Exhaustion

Answer: , C, and D


The three successive stages in the unfoldment of the unconcealed congeniality syndrome are intimidate, opposition, and want.

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