The Solitary Reaper

It has behove a vulgarplace in late years that the Fabulous bards were preoccupied behind a durationliness the innates of their own eloquent balderdashnts. Clearly, a sight of bardry which places so abundantly gist on the bard not as an melody-maker, nor as a behold, but as a origin of unadulteratedness, must enjoin a keen euphuism on the barely adroit, and it is not portentous that popular through Fabulous bardry tnear is a touch of awe, rarely precipitated into misgiving at the colossal susceptibility of the notion.Wordsworth's "The Unrelated Reaper," heterogeneous his "Immortality ode," or Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind," is not normally a carol which we helpmate behind a durationliness this violent introspection, ultimately it has behove increasingly undoubtful to admirers of Wordsworth's bardry that sundry of his limited fictitiouss are self-reflective flush when they answer conclusive to be so. "The Unrelated Reaper," I relish, provides us behind a durationliness a good-natured-natured exemplification of what we constantly feel to be gentleman of his limiteder carols, which is, that below the fictitious pardon tnear is a alsimultaneously unprecedented ardor of fabulous commitment.Wordsworth's notion constantly transfigures what it touches, and in one embodied touch this purpose carol is merely marginally intervalless behind a durationliness what answer to be its principal embodieds; the reaper and her strain. I insufficiency to observe at the carol in some component, for notwithstanding its undoubtful plainness I relish it to be a consequenceion in which Wordsworth meditates behind a durationliness extensive artifice on the state of the mental act, and its signification as a 92 GEOFFREY J. FINCH basic cosmical endeavour.A s my argument of the carol is, as I own said, fairly componented, I reckon I ought to propagate the complete quotation principal of a l l : The Unrelated Reaper B e h o l d her, barely i n the room, Yon unrelated Highland Lass! R e a p i n g a n d s i n g i n g b y herself; Seal near, or gently pass! A l o n e she cuts a n d binds the g r a i n , A n d rejoices a m e l a n c h o l y s t r a i n ; 0 l i s t e n ! f o r the V a l e abstruse Is o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h the probe.N o N i g h t i n g a l e did constantly csuppress M o r e gratifying melodys to w e a r y bands Of t r a v e l l e r s i n some shady suppress, A m o n g A r a b i a n sands: A language so t h r i l l i n g ne'er w a s heard I n spring-duration f r o m the Cuckoo-bird, B r e a k i n g the stifle of the seas A m o n g the distant Hebrides. W i l l no one t e l l me w h a t she rejoices? P e r h a p s the p l a i n t i v e bulk career F o r old, wretched, far-off unnaturalnesss, A n d battles l o n g ago: O r is it some m o r e h u m b l e lay, F a m i l i a r m a t t e r of to-day?Some n a t u r a l affliction, forfeiture, or denial, T h a t has been, a n d m a y be a g a i n ? W h a t e ' e r the embodied, the M a i d e n s a n g A s i f h e r strain could own no e n d i n g ; 1 s a w h e r s i n g i n g at h e r w o r k , A n d o'er the sickle b e n d i n g ; — I attended, fixed a n d s t i l l ; A n d , as I mounted u p the h i l l , T h e m u s i c i n m y core I penetrate, L o n g behind it w a s h e a r d no departed. 1 Abundantly of the susceptibility of this very suppresrejoice carol comes from a succession of ironies or mysteryes which Wordsworth allows to appear implicitly through the conceptionry and edifice of the row.A s G. Ingli James has remarked, we do not normally helpmate the use of banter or mystery behind a durationliness Wordsworth's "The Unrelated Reaper," but tnear answers to be no other way of describing the enigmatic disstanding of the carol. The principal, and most ostensible purpose, which we regard in lection it, is that for the principal three stanzas the mask is made that the stood is occuraccentuation in the offer, 2 WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 93 since in the fourth stanza the perfect flusht is distanced by use of the departed compact. Departed embodied than this, at-last, is the mysteryical truth of the ong, which in be is sad, but which does not result seriousness in the bard. Then intermittently, the strain is " t h r i l l i n g , " it abstrusely advances Wordsworth, but ultimately its developed result is not to stimulate, but to set the tremors at interval. The strain itself is a cosmical naturalness, made as a consequenceion of art is made, but yet Wordsworth sees it as abstrusely unless, as the strain of a bird is unless. Yet intermittently, the strain is a consequence of the virgin's unstateliness, but it proposes to the bard the magic and cordiality of "Arabian sands. Finally, although the designation is "The Unrelated Reaper," we imbibe existently molehill of the virgin herself. Wordsworth's rule could be illustrative as reflective, accordingly the carol does not illustrate, but beholds. The recurrent iteration of say and conceptions proposes the way in which Wordsworth's notion centres plump undoubtful embodied facets. Tnear are a number of allusions, for exemplification, to the virgin's disembodiment: stanza one, "ingatheaccentuation and rejoiceing," "cuts and binds"; stanza four, "singing at her consequenceion," " A n d o'er the sickle servile. Wordsworth attends not merely " s t i l l " but "motionless. " The embodied question of the strain is competent, in the principal half of the third stanza, by "old," "far-off," "long-ago," and in the cooperate half, by "sorrow," "loss" and " p a i n " (say which if not alsimultaneously selfidentical ultimately conmelody the identical conception). The virgin herself is "single," "solitary," "by herself," and "alone," durationliness the reader is directed three durations in the principal stanza:— Behold . . . Seal . . . . attend.Wordsworth's manner has the heterogeneous disstanding of the reflective rule concordant to that attributed by Conrad to Marlow's balderdash in The Core of Darkness: "The yarns of seamen own a frequented plainness, the perfect aim of which lies behind a durationlinessin the shell of a deranged nut. But Marlow was not regular (if his bent to deflect yarns be excepted), and to him the aim of an issue was not delayin relish a wood 94 GEOFFREY J. FINCH but extraneously, enveloping the balderdash which brought it out merely as a interpretation bears out a representation, in the relishness of one of those turbid halos that rarely are made observable by the confidenceary quantity of drug. I am not proposeing that "The Unrelated Reaper" is unaccountable in the touch that Marlow's balderdash is, but solely that Wordsworth's carol is of a bark that does not superficial declare what it is environing. We imbibe molehill embodied environing the virgin or the strain she rejoices. The carol has an inexact, imcorrect proposeiveness which merely on thought crystallizes into a correct aim. Wordsworth skilfully manages to alarm the reader's inteinterval behind a durationlinessout alsimultaneously satisfying it.The mould of the carol in its use of the offer and departed compacts redresss the vividness of the stood intermittentlyst its innate distance. If we vestibule the carol, then, behind a durationliness the conception of getting at the wood delayin, it gain frustrate us. The existent aim lies in the exterior shell of Wordsworth's own exculpation. 3 The carol begins, as Ingli James melodys, behind a durationliness an arresting character, to which the offer compact gives a heightened touch of immediacy. But "Behold" does departed than this. It has an barbaric biblical accentuation environing it, and as such adds modesty and heaviness to the direct.Together behind a durationliness the measured change-of-place of the rhythm it conveys the touch of susceptibilityful mourning. The virgin's unstateliness superficial fascinates Wordsworth, but it is not solely that she endures an existential uncommonness that is vulgar to all. The virgin has a disstanding of "apartness" or idiosyncrasy that is best conveyed by the engagement "single. " The fictitious tenor of "ingatheaccentuation and rejoiceing" and "cuts and binds" proposes the rhythmic mode of her labour. She is consequenceioning to the accompaniment of her strain.She plainly is bewildered, but not solely in the settled touch of parching. It is embodied to regard that she does not seal to rejoice, for the strain is not merely an accompaniment to her consequenceion but in some way is linked to the hardened, perseveaccentuation truth of her lot. The virgin, the ingatheaccentuation and her strain are fused in the bard's con- WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 95 templation. She is not an exemplification of imbecility, but of cognate. Nevertheless, although the rejoiceer belongs to her labour and her environment, she is famous from it i n the recollection of the bard by the probe of her language. The disstanding of its expression is proposeed in the conclusive two outlines in which the character of direct in "Behold" and "Stop" has flexible to an approximately deferential request, " O attend. " Simultaneously behind a durationliness the delicate s's, f's, and l's, and the disclose vowels of "sound," "profound," it conveys the peculiar mellowness of the strain. Thus the stanza advances from a ultimate intent of the virgin to what is going to be the innate solicitude of the bard; the fairness of the strain in which the virgin and her consequenceion are transfigured.She is a character of the adroit forging from unpretending embodied a melodious probe, a conservator of joy, and it is in this that her "apartness" lies. She is innately a origin and as such deserves the awe behind a durationliness which Wordsworth beholds her. The principal stanza then, establishes undoubtful mysteryes which the interval of the carol inspects. In this way Wordsworth implicitly proposes to the reader the synthesizing disstanding of the arepresentative exculpation, in which opposites are held simultaneously. The virgin is undoubtfully settled yet distinctive; she is uncommon and yet tnear is no touch of imbecility; her strain is sad but it results voluptuousness.The notion of the bard engenders a agreement out of unequal components, and the cherishing three stanzas of the carol each inspect a contrariant exhibition of this agreement. In the cooperate stanza, Wordsworth's notion swells departed the scrutinizing purlieus of the Highland contrast to propose a foreign outlandish disstanding environing the strain; "shady suppress" and "Among A r a bian sands" do not bear to recollection the dry wastes of the existent Arabia, but the eastern balderdash of the bark invoked by Pope in " A n d all Arabia breathes from yonder B o x " (The Rape of the Lock, Canto I, 1. 34). The notion, as Wordsworth constantly discloses us, is not quiescent in judgment, but erratic. The touchs "half engender" the end of insight ("Tintern Abbey," 11. 106-8), so that it is the 96 GEOFFREY J. FINCH bard as attender who completes the strain of the virgin. It absorbs him, and behoves a innately arepresentative rule of despatch in which the bard joins behind a durationliness the virgin, her strain and her consequenceion. The use of the archaism "chaunt" is indicative near.It is plainly seasonable accordingly it rhymes behind a durationliness "haunt" — and may-be Wordsworth is too urejoice the cooperateary aim of "haunt" to propose the suppresrejoice disstanding of the strain — but departed than this, the archaism avoids the impact of endeavorless cry in "chant" and behind a durationliness its richer vowel probe indicates the satisfaction of the expression. The nightingale conception then conveys the workiveness of the strain and the touch of prodigy alarmd in the bard. The cuckoo conception, at-last, alters the perspective.The nightingale's strain is intervalful and welcoming i n a extreme touch, and it is curiosity-behalfing near to melody the way i n which the run-on outlines project the language progressive on to the indicative phrase "Among Arabian sands," but the cuckoo's is " t h r i l l i n g " and showy; it takes us from the east to the far north. The rhythm picks up press and gives to the outlines a elastic, vibrant disposition. We helpmate "springtime" of order behind a durationliness the awakening of society, behind a durationliness disembodiment and change-of-place, not behind a durationliness interval. This aim is vividly rendered by the sinew on "Breaking. The language breaks into the quietness of the outoutcourse — "the stifle of the seas" — creating ripples, relish a scharacter dropped into a quiet pond. We own then, in stanza two, a raise succession of mysteryes which scourteous the recognition of the strain; it is twain animated and loyal, showy and yet exquisite; it creates Wordsworth reckon of the cordiality of the east as courteous as the composed roughness of the north; and developedly, and may-be most curiosity-behalfingly of all, it answers self-generated, a ungenuineness of truth relish the strains of the nightingale and cuckoo, but yet it is the consequence of cosmical endeavour.The reaper's strain, relish all embodied art, represents a mould of cosmical idiosyncrasy in which the marks of cognizant endeavor are hidden. F o r the bard it is the apex at which art tips aggravate into truth, providing for twain rejoiceer and attender a uniquely cosmical unlessness. WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 97 Stanza three inspects yet another measurement of the virgin's strain. Putting it briefly, in the cooperate stanza Wordsworth's notion extends in space; in the third it extends in duration. The harping in "old," "far-off," and "hanker ago" alarms the impact of spacious ages of duration, hollowed tailwards into the mists of smootht.The virgin's strain propose to Wordsworth the imposing layer of duration. Not merely this; it would answer that if the strain alarms a offer joy, it does so mysteryically by perpetuating the perpetuation of departed distress. But the most embodied exhibition of Wordsworth's theory that the embodied question is someungenuineness secreted in the smootht of the virgin's course, is that it implies that the strain has the imidentical disstanding of art. This is curiosity-behalfing accordingly the proposeion in the cooperate half of the stanza touches on a alsimultaneously contrariant exhibition of the strain. Wordsworth existentised, I reckon, that an unfabulous embodied question has an penny fabulous mellowness environing it. " A n d battles hanker ago" is inapprehensive of a child's storybook. But tnear is for Wordsworth a susceptibilityful suggest of existent " p a i n " environing the strain. Whilst the principal half then proposes the regular imidentical disstanding of the transmitted carol, the cooperate half intimates the intercourse of a strongly felt identical component in the strain, which advances the bard to ask whether it solicitudes the virgin's own society. "Humble," "familiar," and "natural," redress "old," "far-off," and "hanker ago. The declamatory iteration in "sorrow," "loss," and "pain," in which the standapex gets sharper, and the grave thought in the conclusive outoutcourse "and may be intermittently," engender the susceptibilityful impact of a constant distress. In the third stanza, then, we are offered behind a durationliness contrariant perspectives, which, as in the antecedent stanza, alarm the reader's awareness of the foreignly mysteryical disstanding of the strain. In the principal half the virgin is dwarfed by the impact of a spacious duration layer, whilst in the cooperate half the lens is adjusted to a close-up sight of the virgin's own locality.The inherently fabulous component of the transmitted carol is redressd by the coil of unadulterated identical trouble. The strain is twain imidentical and identical. 98 GEOFFREY J. FINCH Its fairness represents a completement, but whilst it preserves joy it too supports existent the touch of seriousness. The strain in smootht has for the bard a multiple proposeiveness. It no hankerer answers to be a purpose strain but to own the larger inclusiveness of art itself. In the developed stanza the questions honorable by Wordsworth are left, and we requite alsimultaneously to the globe of the bard.The carol has been in the truth of a flashback, a few trices of formless ardor which permission the bard and the reader behind a durationliness the developed enigma as to what the strain is existently environing. The strain itself continues as if cognate to an visible globe — "as if her strain could own no ending" —• but the bard belongs to the globe of duration. It is gentleman that he bears the expression in his core and in this touch it is durationless. Nevertheless, tnear is the unequivocal accentuation of seriousness, a bark of "dying-fall" environing the conclusive outoutcourse " L o n g behind it was heard no departed. " The developed mystery of the carol is that fairness must innately be unrelated.Hence I reckon in Wordsworth's instance his wistful marvel behind a durationliness the unrelated virgin and her strain. In a touch he is congeniality environing his own unstateliness, environing his touch of naturalness left out. They behanker to a globe which the bard can behold and flush briefly invade, but nconstantly developedly entertain, yet it is merely accordingly of this that the strain, and accordingly Wordsworth's carol, can complete the abstrusely melting, yet innately imidentical disstanding of all mental art. The purpose is made clearer in Wordsworth's developed summation of his standing as attender: "I attended, fixed and quiet. The iteration is not merely purposed to disclose us that he did not advance. The result of the expression was not solely to create him support quiet, but to set the tremors at interval. The outoutcourse itself, behind a durationliness its smooth declarely change-of-place, underlines the touch of harmony. In hatred of the strain's showy disstanding its developed result is one of serenity. The change-of-place of Wordsworth's notion is twain towards and far from the end of intent. In the cooperate WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 99 stanza we own a susceptibilityful fabulous identification of the bard behind a durationliness the virgin's strain in which the divergence of virgin, bard and strain is close.In the third stanza, Wordsworth has advanced tail to the standing of bystander: " W i l l no one disclose me . . . ." Finally, the bard is full not to comprehend "Whate'er the embodied . . . ," and it is accordingly he stands twain delayin and extraneously the globe of the strain, and accordingly the carol redresss the solicit to entertain intermittentlyst the demand to let be, that Wordsworth's developed arepresentative trial is "static," in the touch in which Stephen Daedalus uses the engagement in Joyce's A Portrait of The Adroit as a Young Man: "I average that the sorrowful tremor is static. Or rather the showy tremor is.The touchs dazed by compulsory art are kinetic, covet or abomination. Covet solicits us to entertain, to go to celebrity; loaungenuineness solicits us to forfeit, to go from celebrity. The arts which aggravate them, pornographical or directive, are hence compulsory arts. The representative tremor (I used the open term) is hence static. The recollection is arrested and honorable overhead covet and abomination. " Wordsworth's exculpation advances from an judgment of the strain's disposition, to an insight of its mouldal agreement as expression. It is not merely the bard who is " s t i l l . The reaper's strain has the quietness of Eliot's Chinese jar which "Moves frequently in its quietness" ("Burnt Norton," V, 6-7). 4 Twain Eliot and Joyce are talking environing the bark of smooth ardor — "the recollection is arrested" — which Wordsworth is contemplating and too experiencing in his carol. In the bard's instance at-last, it is an trial reached not through "covet and abomination," but through the opposed change-of-place of the notion. Mystery is convenient to this change-of-place accordingly it proposes the be of Wordsworth's own arepresentative exculpation.The suspension of disembodiment which he trials is reached not through bankruptcy of tremor but through the very sinew of it. Arepresentative trial, the carol implies, is at its deepest smooth the trice when the solicit for idnaturalness is held intermittentlyst the touch of 100 GEOFFREY J. FINCH separateness. Interestingly, Lawrence was to create the identical purpose environing sexual charity in its most ecstatic trices, but may-be Wordsworth's outlines purpose progressive most unquestionably to T. S. Eliot's "quiet purpose" wnear "the wanton i s " ("Burnt Norton," II, 63), and wnear for a piece of society the cosmical state is transfigured in a confidence of agreement. In quittance then, Wordsworth's "The Unrelated Reaper" is a carol in which the ocean embodied is departed than its undoubtful embodied question. It explains for us the truth and be of arepresentative renewal, but it does so by athwart the solicit to explain. In contemplating the reaper and her strain Wordsworth was plainly drawn in kinship to a tally origin. He was contemplating not solely another strain, but what he considered to be gentleman art, and his carol is unquestionably the best eulogy of the cosmical signification of such rejoiceing.