Modern and Future Management

Nowadays, there are a lot of reasons why information technology has turn out to be so widespread and there are no signs that these reasons will fade away any time soon. The processing power and storage capacities of semiconductor devices, which are the elements of information technology, have been doubling every eighteen months for the past thirty years. Simultaneously, prices have continued to drop off. This denotes that information technology, which can be programmed to do almost anything, has become rooted in various kinds of organizational and physical systems.
IT products have developed into commodity items. General-purpose semiconductor devices, for example the microprocessor, can now be used for millions of numerous reasons, resulting to economies of scale. These devices are much more dependable than the mechanical, vacuum tube, and transistor devices that they take the place of. They enhance value to the products in which they are used, and they lessen the call for human users to do hazardous or tedious tasks.
Enormous developments over the past decade in the connectedness of computers and in human-machine interfaces have driven new uses. It seems as if information technology will be a progressively more significant part of the U. S. national economy for many years in store. Information technology is an extensive subject related to technology and other features of managing and processing information, particularly in big organizations. Above all, IT copes with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, collect, protect, sort out, convey, and retrieve information.

Accordingly, computer professionals are often named IT specialists, and the division of a company or university that copes up with software technology is often termed as the IT department. Further names for the latter are information services (IS) or management information services (MIS), managed service providers (MSP). In the United Kingdom educational structure, information technology was officially included into the school curriculum when the National Curriculum was worked out. It was promptly recognized that the work covered was helpful in all subjects.
Also read about importance of commerce in moderm world
With the influx of the internet and the broadband connections to all schools, the application of IT education, skills and knowledge in all subjects became an actuality. This transformation in importance has led to a modification of name from Information Technology (IT) to Information and Communication Technology (ICT). ICT in Education can be acknowledged as the application of digital equipment to all facets of teaching and learning. Almost all schools have IT included in their curriculum and it is of promising influence.
One significant aspect of Information Technology is the Telecommunications industry. Telecommunications are devices and systems that communicate electronic or optical signals across long distances. Telecommunications allows people globally to get in touch with one another, to retrieve information right away, and to be in contact from remote areas. At present this process practically always entails the sending of electromagnetic waves by electronic transmitters although in earlier years it may have required the use of smoke signals, drums or semaphores (Ambardar, 1999).
Nowadays, telecommunication is prevalent and devices that help the process like the television, radio and telephone are ordinary in many parts of the world. There is also a immeasurable range of networks that link these devices, as well as computer networks, public telephone networks, radio networks and television networks. Computers ‘conversing’ across the Internet is just one of the numerous scenarios of telecommunication. Telecommunications generally requires a sender of information and one or more recipients connected by a technology, like a telephone system, that conveys information from one place to another.
The essential building blocks of a telecommunication system are a transmitter that acquires information and translates it to a signal for transmission, a channel over which the signal is sent out and a receiver that picks up and converts the signal back into functional information. Telecommunications devices translate various types of information, like the sound and video, into electronic or optical signals. Electronic signals normally pass through along a channel such as copper wire or are transmitted over the air as radio waves. Optical signals usually pass through along a channel such as strands of glass fibers.
When a signal gets to its destination, the device on the receiving end translates the signal back into an comprehensible message, for example sound over a telephone, moving images on a television, or words and pictures on a computer screen. Telecommunications messages can be transmitted in a numerous ways and by a broad range of devices. The messages can be conveyed from one sender to a single receiver (point-to-point) or from one sender to many receivers (point-to-multipoint). Personal communications, like a telephone conversation between two people or a facsimile (fax) message, generally entail point-to-point transmission.
Point-to-multipoint telecommunications, often named broadcasts, present the foundation for commercial radio and television programming. Figure 1 How Telecommunications work Communicating over long distances has been an experiment all through history (Haykin, 2001). In earliest times, runners were used to transport significant messages between rulers or other key people. Other types of long-distance communication consisted of smoke signals, chains of searchlights and flags to convey a message from one tower to another, carrier pigeons, and horses.
Drums were used by inhabitants in Africa, New Guinea and tropical America while smoke signals were used by citizens in America and China. Opposing to what one might think, these systems were often used to do more than just broadcast the presence of a camp. Modern telecommunications started in the 1800s with the breakthrough that electricity can be used to send out a signal. For the first time, a signal could be transmitted faster than any other means of transportation. The first practical telecommunications apparatus to make use of this discovery was the telegraph.
Starting in the mid-1800s, the telegraph transported the first intercity, transcontinental, and transoceanic messages in the world. The telegraph transformed the way people communicated by giving out messages faster than any other method presented at the time. American art professor Samuel F. B. Morse took up an interest in electromagnetism to invent a practical electromagnetic telegraph in 1837. Morse partnered with Alfred Vail and was able to commercialize the technology with financial assistance from the U. S. government. In 1843 Morse developed a demonstration telegraph connection between Washington, D. C. , and Baltimore, Maryland.
On May 24, 1844, the network was launched for commercial use with the message, “What hath God wrought! ” Telegraph use rapidly unfold; the first transcontinental connection was finished in 1861 between San Francisco, California, and Washington, D. C. Railroad companies and newspapers were the first major telegraphy users. Telegraph lines were created similar to railroad beds. Telegraphy assisted the railroads handle traffic and permitted news organizations to deliver stories instantly to local newspapers. In a few years, a number of telegraph companies were operational, each with its own network of telegraph wires.
Consolidation happened in the telegraph industry and by the 1870s the Western Union Telegraph Company came out as the leading operator. In 1876 American inventor Alexander Graham Bell led in a new age of voice and sound telecommunication when he articulated to his assistant the words, “Mr. Watson, come here; I want you,” using a prototype telephone. Bell established the patent for the first telephone, but he had to battle several legal challenges to his patent from other inventors with comparable devices. Bell was able to make his prototype telephone work out, and this allowed him to draw financial supporters, and his company developed.
The telephone was an enormous development over the telegraph system, which could only communicate coded words and numbers, not the sound of a human voice. Telegraph messages had to be decoded by trained operators, written down, and then transported to the receiving party, all of which consumed much time. The telephone conveyed actual sound messages and created telecommunication instant. Enhanced switching technology (used to transfer calls from one local network to another) suggested individual telephones could be linked for personal conversations. The first commercial telephone line was set up in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1877.
Early telephones called for direct links to other telephones, but this difficulty was resolved with telephone exchange switches, the first of which was set up in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1878. A telephone exchange connected telephones in a particular area together, so a link between the telephone and the exchange was all that was required. Telephones were much more suitable and personal than telegrams, and their use instantly extended. Finally, long-distance telephone service in the United States was merged into one company, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (now known as AT;T Corp.
), which was a controlled domination. Italian inventor and electrical engineer Guglielmo Marconi communicated a Morse-code telegraph signal by means of radio in 1895. This started a revolution in wireless telegraphy that would afterward lead to broadcast radios that could put on the air actual voice and music. Radio and wireless telegraph communication played a significant role during World War I (1914-1918), letting military personnel to converse at once with troops in distant locations. Television got its inception as a mass-communication channel soon after World War II (1939-1945).
The cost of television transmission disallowed its use as a two-way medium, however radio broadcasters immediately saw the possibility for television to offer a new way of conveying news and entertainment programming to people. Transformations in technology, government regulation, and market conditions carry on changing the telecommunications industry. While voice telephone communication was formerly the main service of the industry, the transmission of an array of information, consisting of data, graphics, and video, is now ordinary.
The extensive installation of fiber optic cables, which convey light signals along glass strands, allows faster, higher capacity transmissions than those probable with traditional copper wire lines. Additionally, networks of radio towers offers wireless telecommunications services (Dodd, 1996). Modifications in government regulation presented competition into an industry that was once conquered by a particular company. Competition from outside the industry improved as cable companies and public utilities extended their own communications networks.
In the late 1990s, the evolution of the Internet, progress in a range of technologies, the deregulation of the telecommunications industry, and prompt increases in demand for telecommunications services facilitated promote swift advancement. As a result, a lot of new competitors came in the markets and made further transmission capacity. The substantial investments in additional capacity by new competitors and existing companies ultimately made supply to considerably exceed demand, leading to much lower prices for transmission capacity.
The surplus and added competition brought about either decreasing revenues or reducing revenue growth, which affected lots of companies to cut employment. The main division of the telecommunications industry is telephone communications. Organizations in this division run both wireline and wireless networks. Wireline networks use wires and cables to link customers’ sites to central offices sustained by telecommunications companies. Central offices control switching equipment that transmits content to its final destination or to another switching center.
For instance, switching equipment may direct local telephone calls straight from the central office to their final destination; long-distance calls are directed to larger switching centers that establish the most effective route for the call to take. Voice telephone communications have long been the main service presented by telephone companies. With the growing popularity of the Internet, though, customers progressively use their telephone service to pass on data and other electronic materials. The communication of such content depends on digital technologies that use telecommunications networks more effectively than do regular systems.
Digital signals contain separate pieces of electronic code that can be broken apart in transmission and then reassembled at the destination. Telecommunications providers have created networks of computerized switching equipment, named packet switched networks, to direct digital signals. Packet switches break the signals into small sections or “packets” and supply each with the essential routing information (Metcalfe ; Boggs, 1996). Sections may take different courses to their destination and may share the paths with packets from other users.
At the destination, the sections are reassembled, and the transmission is finish. Since packet switching takes into account alternative routes, and lets multiple transmissions to share the same route, it gives rise to a more effective use of telecommunications capacity. Voice communications are usually split up and reassembled by telecommunications companies’ switching and routing equipment. An progressively more popular alternative for businesses, which should ultimately become more ordinary in residential communications, is identified as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP).
VoIP splits up the conversation into packets in the telephone, communicating the conversation over the Internet. The telephone has an Internet address at which it receives and reassembles packets into voice communications. Revolution in technology and regulation now permit cable and satellite television providers to contend with telephone companies. An imperative change has been the speedy increase in two-way communications capacity. Conventional pay television services offered communications only from the distributor to the customer.
These services could not give efficient communications from the customer back to other points in the system, owing to signal obstruction and the restricted capacity of conventional cable systems. Cable operators implemented new technologies to decrease signal obstruction or interference. The capacity of distribution systems also has improved, as a result of the installation of fiber optic cables and enhanced data compression. Accordingly, some pay television systems now present two-way telecommunications services, such as telephone service and high-speed Internet access.
The expensive cost of creating cable telephony systems has restricted growth. New technologies being created to cut down construction costs should facilitate combat this problem. Also, satellite-based systems have been through rapid development, with more than 19 million subscribers in 2002. The progress of the satellite subscription industry develops from numerous factors. Prices for mini-dish subscriptions have declined considerably, and are now competitive with cable. Moreover, regulatory changes permitted satellite services to start carrying local network channels. Currently, satellite services have started offering Internet access.
Personal computers have pushed the restrictions of the telephone system as more and more complex computer messages are being conveyed over telephone lines, and at speedily increasing speeds. This must for speed has pushed the growth of digital transmission technology. The increasing use of personal computers for telecommunications has fueled the call for improvements in fiber-optic technology. Modern technologies and inter-modal competition among providers have influenced the way we communicate. However, these same technologies have exposed the door to new types of consumer fraud, like slamming, cramming, and modem hijacking.
Thus, an organization that oversees that competitors treat each other justly and that all service providers deal with consumers justly, within the bounds of the law must be created (Macey, 2005). The telecommunications industry presents steady, continual employment. Overtime at times is necessary, particularly in emergencies, for instance floods or hurricanes when employees may have to show up to work with little announcement. The telecommunications industry had given 1. 2 million wage and salary jobs in 2002. The majority of telecommunications employees operate in large establishments.
Sixty-four percent of employment is in establishments with 100 or more employees (chart 1). With continuing deregulation, though, the number of small contractors has been escalating. Telecommunications jobs are found in nearly every community; however, most employees work in cities that have considerable concentrations of industrial and business establishments. Even though the telecommunications industry uses workers in several different occupations, 56 percent of all workers are employed in either office and administrative support occupations or installation, maintenance, and repair occupations.
Of the industry’s employees, fourteen percent are professional workers. Several of these are scientific and technical personnel, particularly engineers and computer specialists. Engineers plan cable and microwave routes, central office and PBX equipment installations, and the development of existing structures, and resolve other engineering troubles. A number of engineers also take part in research and development of new equipment. Several concentrate in telecommunications design or voice, video, or data communications systems, and integrate communications equipment with computer networks.
They work directly with clients, who may not appreciate complicated communications systems, and design systems that meet their customers’ desires. Computer software engineers and network systems and data communications analysts plan, work out, test, and debug software products. These consist of computer-assisted engineering programs for schematic cabling projects; modeling programs for cellular and satellite systems; and programs for telephone options, examples are voice mail, e-mail, and call waiting.
Telecommunications specialists organize the installation of these systems and may offer follow-up maintenance and training. Additionally, the industry employs several other managerial, professional, and technical workers, such as financial information and record clerks; accountants and auditors; human resources, training, and labor relations managers; engineering technicians; and computer programmers. Of the industry’s employees, fourteen percent are in sales and related occupations.
These workers advertise or sell telecommunications services, such as long-distance service, personal answering services, voice mail, e-mail, and call-waiting telephone options. Latest occupational specialties have materialized anchored in the industry’s innovations and new technologies. For instance, some engineers research, design, and build up gas lasers and related equipment required to send messages by way of fiber optic cable transmission. They examine the restrictions and uses of lasers and fiber optics; discover new applications for them; and supervise the building, testing, and operations of the new applications.
Owing to the speedy establishment of new technologies and services, the telecommunications industry is among the most fast changing in the economy. This signifies that workers must maintain their job skills advanced or up to date. From managers to communications equipment operators, improved information of both computer hardware and software is of supreme significance. Numerous key companies and the telecommunications unions have formed a Web site that offers free training for employees, facilitating them to keep their knowledge modern and assisting them to move ahead.
Telecommunications industry employers now seek workers with knowledge of and skills in computer programming and software design; voice telephone technology, known as telephony; laser and fiber optic technology; wireless technology; and data compression. Individuals with sales capability improved by interpersonal skills and learning of telecommunications terminology also are wanted (Negroponte, 1996). Employment in the telecommunications industry is anticipated to increase by 7 percent over the 2002-12 periods, fairly less than the 16 percent expected for all industries combined.
At present, excess transmission capacity and significant debt among telecommunications firms ought to regulate employment. Nevertheless, increasing demand for telecommunications services will in the long run bring about a continuation of job growth in the industry. Upsurge in both residential and business demand for high-capacity communications will in due course make possible upgrades of telecommunications networks. Fast increasing wireless demand, and the creation of a new generation of wireless systems, will improve the wireless portion of the industry.
Then again, technological advancements, such as fiber optic lines and advanced switching equipment, have extremely increased the data transmission capacity of telecommunications networks, and the ensuing productivity gains have narrowed employment growth. Individuals with state-of-the-art technical skills ought to have the best employment opportunities. Residential demand will boost as technology and competition reduce the price of premium services, like the high-speed Internet access, video-on-demand, and wireless telephone service.
The reduced prices due to growing capacity and competition will carry on limiting revenues, cutting employment growth. Demand in addition, will intensify since deregulation has permitted providers to present combined services, making it easier for households to get hold of a wide selection of telecommunications services. Wireless carriers are competing directly with the residential service business, offering progressively more dependable cellular service and Internet service. Hence, the lines between cable and satellite TV, wireless, and wireline telephone systems will become unclear.
Business demand will go up as companies increasingly depend on their telecommunications systems to carry out electronic commerce. So as to continue being competitive, businesses will necessitate higher speed access to the Internet for a variety of reasons consisting of purchasing, marketing, sales, and customer service, however the growing demand will not give rise to considerable employment gains. Several employment losses will stem from enhanced laborsaving technologies, like the self-monitoring equipment, and from layoffs by reason of mergers and consolidation in the deregulated industry.
Technology will persist to change the industry. The installation and advancement of fiber optic networks will convey ever-faster communications closer to residential customers. Internet telephony, which conveys voice, video, fax, and e-mail communications over the Internet, will haze the boundaries between telecommunications providers and Internet service providers. Wireless providers will keep on enhancing the capacity of their radio networks and bringing in enhanced portable, lightweight devices capable of transmitting voice, data, and video.
Convergence of telecommunications technologies may also set off a transformation in the kind of content accessible. Both television and personal computers are expected to add in new multimedia, interactive, and digital features. Yet, in the near term, before the actualization of a fully digital telecommunications world, devices such as modems will still be required to give an important link between the old analog world and the upcoming digital one.
Works Cited
Ambardar, A. (1999). Analog and Digital Signal Processing, (2nd ed, pp. 1-2). California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Dodd, A. Z. (1996).The Essential Guide to Telecommunications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Haykin, S. (2001). Communication Systems. (4th edition, pp 1-3). New Jersey: John Wiley ; Sons. Macey, S. L. (2005). Telecommunications in Indiana: Where we are, How we got here and Where Should we Go?. Indianapolis: Indiana Office of Utility Consumer Counselor Retrieved May 30, 2006, from www. in. gov/oucc/pdf/DeregulationReport2005. pdf Metcalfe, R. M. , ; Boggs, D. R. ( 1996 July). Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks. Communications of the ACM 395(19), 5. Negroponte, N. (1996). Being Digital. UK: Vintage.

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