Provide a 9 pages analysis while answering the following question: DNA Extraction and PCR of Bird DNA for Sex Identification. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style

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Provide a 9 pages analysis while answering the following question: DNA Extraction and PCR of Bird DNA for Sex Identification. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. The difference in the phenotype is used as the basic identification step. Sometimes the phenotypic identification becomes complex in some species such as birds (they are monomorphic sexually). (Huffman and Wallace 2012). These birds are identified genotypicallyThe identification of DNA from the eggshell, feather, and blood is the safest way to determine the sex of the birds. (DNA sexing). The development of molecular markers to determine the sex of an individual is an extremely beneficial tool. In mammals, the males are heterogametic and they carry two different sex chromosomes X and Y and the females carry two identical sex chromosomes – X and X. whereas in birds, the males carry the homogametic sex (ZZ) chromosomes and the females carry the heterogametic sex chromosomes( Z and W). (Ellegren 2001). As many birds are not differentiated through phenotype, the use of molecular markers to identify the sex of the birds is practiced now. (Braun 2004). The chromo- helicase – DNA binding gene (CHD) is present in both the W and Z sex chromosomes but they vary in their size. Hence the use of size polymorphism in the CHD gene is the most common way of determining the sex of the birds. (Ellegren 2001).

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The molecular markers were designed mainly concerning the primer binding regions of the CHD1 gene of the sex chromosome. The genes shared between the nonrecombining parts of the two types of sex chromosomes are the best means to study the genes in the sex chromosomes. The CHD1Z and CHD1W are found to share a highly conserved nucleotide and amino acid levels among them and they evolve independently. (Fridolfsson and Ellegren 2000).

The quality and quantity of DNA obtained from various samples such as blood, feather, eggshell, and skin may vary. Blood and organs are very rich sources of DNA and the quantity of DNA obtained from them will be high. (Frankham, Ballou and Briscoe 2004). Whereas the DNA from other sources such as feathers, eggshells will have less quantity of DNA and the quality of the DNA will vary because of the presence of the other impurities mainly proteins. (Silvy 2012).

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